Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012


Geert THYSSEN, Faculté des Lettres, des Sciences Humaines, des Arts et des Sciences de l'Education, Luxembourg



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Geert THYSSEN, Faculté des Lettres, des Sciences Humaines, des Arts et des Sciences de l'Education, Luxembourg

In this paper I will compare some Belgian, German, French, Italian and Luxembourgian open-air schools and connect them to broader developments affecting similar health institutions that helped ‘internationalize’ contested and ill-defined areas of expertise like ‘school hygiene’. More particularly, I will investigate to what extent everyday practices experienced on the educational shop floor of these institutions can be linked to knowledge ‘globalized’ by ‘international’ conferences on open-air education (and related subjects) from the interwar and post-Second World War period – sites par excellence of cross-border transfer, circulation and diffusion. I will further explore whether knowledge and practices from these conferences and schools reveal changing notions of ‘internationalism’. Methodologically, I will adopt a new-cultural approach, assuming that open-air schools are ‘descended’ from similar initiatives rather than ‘traceable’ to specific ‘origins’, and considering them as changing configurations of inter-national discourses rather than evidence of some countries’ and figureheads’ ‘advance’ in certain areas. Though superseded, such conceptions are still subscribed to by some historians studying the subject from an international perspective. To study how open-air schools and their aspiring ‘movement’ helped ‘internationalize’ health discourses, I will analyse in detail four international open-air school conferences held in France, Belgium, Germany and Italy (1922-1949). Of the last two of these conferences I re-discovered important source material. Since part of this material (minutes, newspaper articles) has already been analyzed with my permission, I will focus on photographs and films – material generally underexplored within educational histories. I expect this analysis to inspire new approaches to processes like internationalization.



L'hygiène à l'école dans les congrès internationaux d'hygiène: quelles circulations des savoirs et pratiques? (1852-1913)

Séverine PARAYRE, Université Lille 3, France

Au cours du XIXe siècle des préoccupations identiques à l'égard de l'hygiène et de son développement pour sauvegarder les populations se sont retrouvées dans chacun des pays dominants de l'Europe occidentale (France, Angleterre, Italie, Allemagne, Autriche, Belgique, Suisse). L'hygiène, qui appartient au domaine médical préventif, préconise des principes de conservation de la santé et apparaît bien souvent comme une ressource fondamentale, alors même que la médecine curative n'est pas encore venue à bout des épidémies (choléra, fièvres typhoïde etc.) et maladies. Les savoirs et pratiques hygiéniques vont se diffuser, s'échanger, se discuter en Europe au sein de congrès internationaux, à tel point que par rapport à l'ensemble du mouvement scientifique international, l'hygiène fait figure de précurseur dans les débats. En même temps dans chacun des pays, l'hygiène au fur et à mesure s'est répandue au sein des domaines public et privé et son influence est également arrivée jusque l'école, au point de parler à partir des années 1860 d'hygiène scolaire, relevant de l'étude des influences de l'école sur la santé des enfants (Riant, 1874). Des années 1852 à 1912, 15 congrès internationaux d'hygiène vont se succéder, lieux de rencontres propices à la diffusion de nouvelles idées, d'échanges fructueux, d'apport de nouveaux savoirs et pratiques, relatifs à tous les âges et domaines accessibles à l'hygiène, de l'enfance à l'âge adulte, du monde scolaire au monde du travail. Si ces congrès ont déjà été étudiés sous le rapport de la diffusion générale des savoirs et savoir-faire (Rasmussen, 2001) et des enjeux idéologiques, sanitaires et politiques (Nonnis, 2001), en revanche les angles scolaire et pédagogique n'ont pas été encore exploités. En effet le discours concernant l'hygiène scolaire et la circulation de ses savoirs et pratiques en Europe et dans le monde, qui eut lieu durant ces 15 congrès internationaux n'a pas encore fait l'objet d'étude approfondie. Elle a pourtant son importance, d'une part compte tenu du développement de l'hygiène au sein de l'école et de son incidence sur l'architecture scolaire et les aménagements matériels, les conditions et rythmes de vie, la pédagogie. D'autre part les instituteurs entreront dans les échanges internationaux à partir du congrès de 1882 qui eut lieu à Genève, démontrant leur implication croissante dans les préoccupations hygiéno-pédagogiques de leur temps. Préoccupations, qui seront renforcées au cours de quatre congrès spécifiques d'hygiène scolaire de 1904 à 1913 . Nous proposons donc une étude détaillée et comparative des 15 congrès internationaux d'hygiène et des 4 congrès internationaux d'hygiène scolaire, permettant de mieux appréhender sur la période de 1852 à 1913 les changements et avancées de l'hygiène à l'école, la circulation des savoirs en Europe et dans le monde et les influences possibles dans chacun des pays, les personnes initiatrices de nouvelles connaissances et pratiques, la place des membres de l'Instruction publique dans ses congrès, les débats et enjeux idéologiques, sanitaires, politiques et pédagogiques dominants.

Jeudi / Thursday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 1160

1.11. Symposium. Histoire de l'enfance en Amérique Latine: lecture, nourriture, liens familiaux et droits / History of children/childhood in Latin America: reading, eating, family ties, and rights

Coordinator(s): Anne-Emanuelle BIRN

Discussant: Anne-Emanuelle BIRN

The history of children/childhood in Latin America has only begun to draw dedicated scholarly attention in the past decade (Hecht 2002). Prior to and even since then, children’s lives have been typically addressed as subsidiary and secondary to histories of women, legal tutelage, state protectionism, and other domains. This symposium brings together the work of four historians who are carrying out pioneering work on distinct yet overlapping aspects of the history of children/childhood in Latin America. Focusing on elements at the very core of childhood existence –the intertwining of children’s book publishing and political culture, United Nations policymaking around school nutrition, kinship laws in the context of state development, and protagonism on children’s rights and health– we will discuss how the needs and interests of children emerged at the intersection of national, regional, and international agendas in the 20th century.



The influence and the circulation of the thought about Children’s Literature of Uruguayan Jesualdo Sosa (1944), in Brazil

Fernando OLIVEIRA de RODRIGUES, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Brazil

In this text, are presented partial results of PhD research in Education (FAPESP), linked to the GPHELLB – Research Group “History of Teaching Language and Literature in Brazil”, coordinated by Maria do Rosário Longo Mortatti. The goal is to contribute to the understanding of the history of teaching children’s literature in brazilian teacher education courses and to contribute to the understanding of circulation, in Brazil, of children’s literature thematizations produced by foreign researchers and foreign intellectuals. To do this, it is focalized on aspects of the thought about children’s literature formulated by the Uruguayan educator and poet Jesualdo Sosa (1905-1982) and contained in the book La literatura infantil, published in 1944, by Editorial Losada (Buenos Aires-Argentina). By means of historical approach, focusing on documentary and bibliographical research, using procedures such as locating, recovering, assembling, selecting and ordering textual references about teaching of children’s literature in Brazil and about specialized bibliography on the subject, it analyzed the textual configuration of this book, which was to focus on different aspects that make up its meaning. This analysis led to understand, among others, the following aspects: La literatura infantil is resultant from the professional performance of Jesualdo Sosa as a teacher in different countries of Latin America, especially in Mexico, where he taught children’s literature at the National School of Teacher of the Mexico. Because of the scarcity of Brazilian and foreign bibliography on the subject, this book has been widely used as a theoretical reference by Brazilian teachers and educators, from the 1950’s, when they began to be published the first specific children’s literature textbooks in Brazil. For this reason, this book has been translated into Portuguese and published in 1974 in Brazil by Cultrix (São Paulo, Brazil), having become the first foreign book about children’s literature translated into Portuguese and published in Brazil. The results obtained by analyzing the textual configuration of the book La literatura infantil has allowed to understanding that Jesualdo Sosa presents, in your book, reflections about ethics, aesthetics and psychology of books intended for children, in order to question the existence of children’s literature “itself” and propose ideas about the importance of morality in this books, so that these reflections formed the basis for the researchers of this genre in Brazil. Therefore, although planned and executed based on education and literary context of Latin American countries, particularly Mexico, this book became, from the 1940’s, a reference for studies about teaching of children’s literature in Brazil, especially for authors of children’s literature textbook used by Brazilian students of teacher education courses. In addition, La literatura infantil, because it is significant circulation and utilization in Brazil, in Spanish version or in Portuguese version, it contributed and influenced significantly to the creation of a set of knowledge concerning the teaching of children’s literature deemed necessary for the formation of teachers for primary school in Brazil.

Books, comics and picture stories for children and teenagers in Argentina and Brazil ( 1940-1960)

Eugenia SCARZANELLA, Università di Bologna, Italia

Three Italian Jewish exiled in Argentina, because of the racial laws, created in 1941 a publishing house: the Editorial Abril. They started publishing a series of small and inexpensive children’s books (like the English and American “Better Little Books”). After the war, Editorial Abril published comics, feminine and teenagers magazines. The Argentinean market was very promising, the economy was booming and consumers were demanding new products in the field of mass culture. But the political situation was not so good: the government of Juan Domingo Perón began to control the education, to censure the press and harassed the foreign entrepreneurs. Fearing that the Peronism could evolve in a fascist-like regime, Editorial Abril invested in Brazil, creating in 1950 a new company, the Editora Abril in São Paulo. In the meantime the publishing house continued its activity in Buenos Aires: invited in Argentina some young Italian writers and designers (as Hugo Pratt) and started to produce a very successful series of comics. At the same time the Editorial Abril published picture stories, a science fiction magazine and a new series of children’s books. The existing old style Argentinean children’s books (published by Editorial Atlantida, Peuser and others publishing houses), with moralistic and edifying stories, on cheap paper and in black and white were rapidly supplanted by the Abril’s books and magazines, full of colours, funny characters, modern stories, beautiful cartoons. The Brazilian company developed along the same lines of production, starting with O Pato Donald. Until the fall of Perón in Argentina the young students read in the school books full of justicialista rhetoric and admiration for the “good fairy” Evita, but at home they could skim trough the pages of El Pato Donald, Misterix, Gatito, Bolsillito, Idilio, Mas allá. The identity of a new generation was formed by the local school system and also by the global mass culture. The anti imperialism of first Peronism didn’t challenge the popularity of the Disney’s heroes: only in the Seventies Donald Duck started to be criticized by the Peronist left as an instrument of cultural colonialism. The paper deals with the changes in the children’s and young subculture in Argentina and Brazil and with the process of socialization of the new generations in the context of the globalization.



The Politics of Filiation in 20th-Century Chile and Latin America

Nara MILANICH, Barnard College, Columbia University, USA

In 1998, a controversial reform abolished the discrimination against illegitimate children that had been a fundamental tenet of Chilean civil law since its nineteenth-century codification. The reform, which enhanced rights to material support and inheritance for the 40 to 50 percent of children born each year to unmarried parents, sparked heated debate among different political sectors: right and left, conservative and progressive Catholics, feminists, and human rights reformers. It represented the culmination of a century of legal deliberation among Chilean jurists who had long proven reluctant to expand legal definitions of family and the rights accorded “non-normative” but widespread kinship forms. Reforms similar to the Chilean one had been enacted elsewhere in the hemisphere: in Mexico in the 1920s, in Argentina, Bolivia, and Guatemala in the 1940s, and in Brazil in the 1980s. Indeed, the Chilean reform can be read within a broader hemispheric narrative of legal change, albeit one exhibiting different chronologies in different national contexts. In this narrative, twentieth-century Latin American states have gradually broadened definitions of kinship and accorded increased rights to categories of kin (including extramarital children, adoptive children, and consensual partners) who historically faced discrimination, when not a total lack of legal recognition. This paper explores the Chilean reform within this context. It seeks to plot the evolution of family law in relation to the wider political economy, tracing how legal constructions of kinship have been shaped by three historical developments in twentieth-century Latin America: first, the emergence of a social welfare apparatus in the mid twentieth century; second, the heightened resonance of invocations of “equality before the law” in the context of late twentieth-century democratization; and finally, the increased importance of kin-based networks in the face of contracting social safety nets under contemporary neoliberalism.



The International Politics of School Feeding in Latin America

Corinne PERNET, University of St. Gallen, Switzerland

School Feeding has a long trajectory in Latin America. Already in the 19th century, “milk drops” (gotas de leche) programs were introduced to lift the nutritional status of disadvantaged children in many countries. With the expansion of the welfare state in the 1920s and most pronouncedly after the rise of developmentalist discourses after World War II, school feeding turned into more than a local, benevolent concern, as it became the subject of discussion and policy at the international level. Unesco, Unicef, the Pan American Health Organization all concerned themselves with the subject, issued guidelines, instituted policies and supervised practices. Who was going to be fed at school? What would they be given? This paper, based on research in multiple archives, examines the rise of school feeding as a field of action for international organizations, discusses the flow of information and inquiries as well as the resulting networks among professionals, but also the conflicts that arose in this matter between the international organizations and their local counterparts.



De Montevideo au monde: Uruguay and the circulation of a child rights approach to health in the interwar period

Anne-Emanuelle BIRN, University of Toronto, Canada

In 1933 the government of Uruguay (under a right-wing, albeit short-lived, dictatorship) established a Ministry of Child Protection –the first of its kind in the world— and in 1934 Uruguay’s parliament adopted a “Children’s Code” delineating the juridical and administrative basis for the state’s protection of children from the prenatal period to adulthood in the areas of health, education, nutrition, and other aspects of human welfare. The Code stipulated that “every child has a right to know who are his parents” as part of its larger commitment to “defend all of the rights of the child.” With the implementation of the Children’s Code under a centralized Children’s Council, Uruguay became a world leader in assuring that children’s rights were not only rhetorically invoked but could be realized through public policies. This paper examines the provenance and resonance of Uruguay’s rights-based child protectionist approach. It begins by exploring children’s well-being from the late 19th century through the early 1930s, with particular attention to how infant mortality was used as an indicator. Following the founding of the Civil Registry in 1879, Uruguayan doctors, social reformers, and civil servants began tracking the country’s infant mortality rates (systematically compiled from the 1890s), first priding themselves on the comparatively low infant mortality rate, then, starting in the 1910s, bemoaning the country’s stagnating infant mortality. The decades-long stagnation was particularly puzzling to contemporaries because it persisted even as Uruguay’s welfare state was burgeoning and French policies to protect maternal and infant welfare were adopted and adapted. In the 1920s Uruguay embarked on an unusual child welfare trajectory, under the leadership of famed pediatrician Luis Morquio. Aided by Paulina Luisi, Uruguay’s first woman physician and its leading feminist, Morquio founded the “International American Institute for the Protection of Childhood” in Montevideo in 1927 to serve as a clearinghouse and research/advocacy organization. Supported by the League of Nations Health Organisation, the Institute’s widely circulating journal and congresses emphasized social approaches to child wellbeing around the world, bringing the problems and innovations experienced in Uruguay not only to the Americas but to the international agenda. The Institute and Uruguayan policymakers engaged with incipient children’s rights approach in Europe, but went further than the general principles of protection for needy children espoused by Save the Children (and the League of Nations) to embrace children’s social rights. With the passage of the Children’s Code, the Uruguayan government unequivocally acknowledged the need to integrate medical and social approaches to the improvement of child health and well-being through better housing, sanitation, schools, household income, food, and state tutelage of “delinquents,” as well as through medical services. Within a decade, and aided by passage of family wage legislation, Uruguay’s infant mortality rate once again resumed a steady decline. Meanwhile, Uruguay’s role in the international child rights movement blossomed- until the outbreak of World War II- through international discussion, debate, and adaptation of its child rights approach to health.

Jeudi / Thursday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: R150

1.12. Symposium. Les écoles communautaires et expérimentales de Hambourg (1919-1933) et la circulation transnationale des concepts et pratiques de réforme / The experimental and community schools (Versuchs- und Gemeinschaftsschulen) in Hamburg (1919-1933) and the transnational circulation of reform concepts and practices

Coordinator(s): Christine MAYER

Discussant: Hans-Ulrich GRUNDER

The Hamburg Versuchs- und Gemeinschaftsschulen (experimental and community schools) were the first effort by a reform-oriented and socially minded, politically committed faculty tried to implement radical school reforms in order to break with the socially stratified Standesschule of the imperial era and realise the approaches and concepts of Neue Erziehung (New Education) in the context of the public elementary school system in 1919/20. As such, the Hamburg schools became models for similar efforts in urban contexts to follow, as happened e.g. in Bremen and Berlin. The influence of the Versuchsschulen reached far beyond the local level to as cities such as Breslau, Dresden, Halle, Jena, Leipzig, Magdeburg and the Ruhr followed their example to develop into centres of reform education in public schools. A topographical study of experimental and reform schools in Germany in 1930 (Schmitt, 1998) shows 99 such schools existing in cities and 62 in rural areas alongside 21 reform boarding schools (Landerziehungsheime). The number of experimental schools in public elementary education grows by almost a further 300 if we also count schools that applied reform principles in their teaching. Yet, though school reform in the Weimar era primarily saw implementation at the elementary level, it was mainly the private Landerziehungsheime that took centre stage in the international discourse on Neue Erziehung. Even recent publications on school reform hardly mention the reform at the elementary level or the publications generated there (cf. e.g. Röhrs/Lenhart 1994, Oelkers/Osterwalder 1999) – despite the fact that these reform schools also drew international attention because of their innovative character. While some attempts have been made to trace the connections and networks of the ‘Hamburg system’ at the national level (though a systematic study remains to be undertaken, cf. Lehberger 1993), we know hardly anything about its international spread and circulation. This is remarkable, given that these experimental schools were regarded as truly remarkable in its time and – as the widespread Handbuch der Pädagogik (1928, 355) edited by Herman Nohl and Ludwig Pallat put it – ‘permanently shook up pedagogical thinking the world over’. The aim of this panel is to study the international diffusion and circulation of practice and knowledge in education reform using the Hamburg experimental schools as an example, and to contribute to the internationalisation of pedagogical knowledge based on this example. One important question will be how the approaches of the Hamburg school reform experiments were received in the context of different cultural contexts and pedagogical experiences, and what influences and innovations were thus generated. We will study the forms and mechanisms of circulation based on a variety of sources and archival materials such as international pedagogical journals and reports of conferences, newspapers, educational books, reports of study travels, school journals etc. In addition, mechanisms of knowledge transfer will also be addressed specifically at the level of translation. A particularly interesting example of this is the 1936 dissertation of the Swiss teacher Jakob Robert Schmid (1909-1977), in which he critically addressed the development of the Hamburg Versuchsschulen. In the course of a renewed debate on education reform and alternative schools in the 1970s, his dissertation was not only reprinted (France 21971, new ed. 1979), but also translated into several languages (into Italian in 1972, 21973, Spanish in 1973, German in 1973, and Portuguese in 1975).

Hamburg and Holland. The spread of new educational ideas in the Northern part of Europe: 1919-1933

Sjaak BRASTER, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands

This paper examines the way in which new ideas about pedagogical reform have spread around the European educational space at the beginning of the twentieth century. Our starting point is the well known experience with community schooling in Hamburg in the period 1919-1933. Was the new Hamburg school an example of a pedagogical innovation that was studied by policy makers and policy influencers from other Northern countries like the Netherlands, and Great Britain? And if so, did these experiences have any lasting impact upon their respective educational systems? We will try to find out by exploring sources like pedagogical journals, newspapers, reports from (international) conferences about education, reports from educational inspectors, and data about study trips. In the Dutch case we will also compare the impact of the new Hamburg schools with the impact of other pedagogical innovations as proposed by Maria Montessori and Helen Parkhurst on the educational system.



The internationalisation of pedagogical knowledge: The example of the Hamburg Versuchs- und Gemeinschaftsschulen (1919-1933)


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