Internationalisation dans le champ éducatif (18e – 20e siècles) Internationalization in Education (18th – 20th centuries) Genève / Geneva, 27-30 juin / June 2012

Raquel MENEZES PACHECO, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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Raquel MENEZES PACHECO, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil

This study is a summary of the main conclusions of my monograph that was part of the Project Moderno, modernidade, modernização: a educação nos projetos de Brasil séc. XIX e XX. The monograph entitled «Annuncios: Práticas Educativas na Província de Minas Gerais (1825-1842)” researched all the 2387 ads over the 3258 numbers published in the journal O Universal between the years 1825 and 1842. From reading these ads, we transcribed, using the original spelling, those that we considered important to the understanding of practices related to education. These ads transcripts were divided into two main themes, according to the objects or services advertised. The first thematic area, called “Instruction”, which divulged met ads classes, public students exams, contests for the occupation of public seats, and others which can help us think a beginning of a process of legitimation of school education in the province of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The second thematic area, “Printed Trade”, brought together ads to buy, sell, or exchange of various types, such as dictionaries, newspapers, printed religious, political, literary. For this study, we based on the methodology of documentary analysis, through the document concepts of Le Goff (1990). The ads were surveyed, first, in the Historical Newspaper Library of the State Secretariat of Culture of Minas Gerais and later, with the scanning of the newspaper Public Archives of Mining, it was accessed through the site http://www.siaapm.cultura. As theoretical concepts, this work fits with the field studies of Cultural History, with the main theoretical Roger Chartier (2002) and the conceptual formulations concerning the production, circulation, cultural appropriation, representation. The formulations of Michel de Certeau, about tactics and strategy also sought to be explored (Nunes; Carvalho, 2005). The use of newspapers as the source and object of research is already being discussed, taking into account the legitimacy that the press has gained, especially when newspapers are used with other documents (Capelato, 1994; Pallares-Burke, 1998). In this study, we seek to understand the press and the journal as part of Modernity. The modernization of the newspaper printers gives a distinctive character that is assigned to books, for example. The newspapers with a specific material, that involves a kind of cheaper paper, serial printer and a textual organization that allows a faster and direct reading, influencing new consumption habits and cultural readings. From this study, we apprehend some educational practices in the province of Minas Gerais in the first half of the nineteenth century, which reflect the role played by newspapers such as educational instance concerned with the formation of new generations and the movement of certain practices, including internationally: the mobilities of teachers, identification of a teaching method which until then was unknown, the legitimacy of public examinations of students, the use of textual techniques of persuasion for most readers, the circulation of international printed books and the influence of foreign languages, especially the french.

History of the History of education - A historical and comparative investigation of scholarly journals (1960’-2010’)

Edwin KEINER, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany

There is no doubt, that educational sciences differ according to academic cultures they origin from and they are embedded in. History of education is the partial discipline, which is expected to mostly reflect upon these particular origins. However, the history of the history of education has rarely been analysed. The paper tries to contribute to research on educational research by looking at the development of history of education, indicated by the history of its scholarly journals. It also tries to ask in a comparative perspective, how different cultural and academic backgrounds produce different shapes of histories of education as a field of study or an academic discipline. Of special interests are a) from an epistemological point of view: structures of topics and layers of time, methods used and methodologies discussed, layout and the relationship between text, figures and pictures; b) from a sociological point of view: disciplinary and institutional affiliation of editors and authors, social function of editorials, networking and relationships to academic organisations or associations. The investigation also serves as a test, whether analyses of scholarly journals also can be applied to the rather complex academic field of educational research, history of education. The paper represents work in progress. It firstly discusses the theoretical framework, secondly, presents the methodology of investigation (including its limitation), thirdly, shows first results and discusses its comparative value.

Jeudi / Thursday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 2140

1.9. Symposium. Femmes enseignantes et handicap fin 19e-début 20e siècle: perspectives internationales / Women teachers and disability in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century: International perspectives

Coordinator(s): Kate ROUSMANIERE

Discussant: Kate ROUSMANIERE

Disability history examines how social categories about ability and disability have been formed and maintained over time. This symposium applies the disability history perspective to the history of women teachers in the United States, Mexico, and Australia, paying particular attention to the ways in which both the challenges of physical and mental ability and cultural constructs of physical and mental ability impacted the work and life of women teachers. As constructions of gender are internationally constructed and reaffirmed, so too are constructions of the “able” woman teacher inscribed with cultural notions of women’s abilities. The first paper by Kate Rousmaniere, “Those who can’t do, teach: The disabling history of American teachers” briefly introduces the field of disability history as applied to the history of American education, and then offers a history of American teachers viewed through the analytic lens of disability. The second paper by Luz Elena Galvan “Women teachers in Mexico, offers an approach to disability and retirement by discussing several cases of Mexican teachers who were diagnosed with neurasthemia and suffered broken limbs and then retired. She focuses on the case of Delfina Rodriguez as an example of how such disabilities, combined with gender prejudice, undermined the promising professional and political careers of teachers. The third paper by Kay Whitehead focuses on the problem of 'strain' or 'neurasthenia', a disability which was said to afflict teachers in the early twentieth century. Using Australian sources, this paper explores various causes of 'strain' and its reputed impact on women teachers' lives and work.

‘Strain’, marriageability and the woman teacher in Australia

Kay WHITEHEAD, Flinders University, Australia

In her recent review essay on disability history Catherine Kudlick (2003, p. 767) argued that ‘the term “disability” defies easy definition’. This is also the case with a condition called ‘strain’, ‘brain fag’ or ‘neurasthenia’ in the early twentieth century. Originally conceptualized as an illness in the mid-nineteenth century, neurasthenia was associated with the stresses of modern life that afflicted middle class brainworkers. ‘Strain’ was debated at length at an Australian Royal Commission on Education in 1912 with various witnesses attempting to diagnose its causes and assess its impact on the teaching workforce, especially women teachers. There were also many suggestions about its prevention and cure. In this paper I will focus on the debates at the 1912 Commission and in other forums in the 1920s and 1930s. In essence, ‘strain’ was being constructed as a disability that had the potential to substantially limit women teachers’ work and lives to the point where they might become unmarriageable. In the final part of the paper, I will use sources from a range of countries to show that ‘strain’ was an international problem during this era.

Women Teachers in Mexico. An approach to disability and retirement

Luz Elena GALVAN, Centro de Investigaciones en Antropologia Social, Mexico

In Mexico, some women teachers that lived by the end of nineteenth and early twentieth century, experienced different sicknesses that after some time forced them to retire. These disabilities included anemia, neurasthenia and osteoporosis, as well as bone fractures, varicose veins, and respiratory illnesses such as: colds, pneumonia and pharyngitis. Originally, I saw illness only as an element of social disorganization, that selectively attacked the poorest and the weak, just as Jacques Revel and Jean Pierre Peter affirmed (1980). After I read other studies related to body, I began to think about the “body sick” After reading Kate Rousmaniere’s paper titled “The Able Educator: Disability and the History of Teachers”, I have developed yet another view of sickness that I will present in the first part of this paper. In the second part of my paper I will focus in one teacher named Delfina Rodriguez, as an example of one woman teacher whose body became very weak and ill, yet who was not prevented from continuing to work, Rodriguez fought for better working conditions for teachers, and included in her campaign weer poems that were published in the national press, and text books. Only a few teachers, like Delfina Rodriguez, managed to have their books used in the classroom and got to be known through them. But finally, disabilities make these teachers leaves the profession, just as it happened with Delfina Rodriguez.

Those who can’t do, teach: The disabling history of American teachers

Kate ROUSMANIERE, Miami University, Ohio, USA

This paper is an exploratory history of American teachers as viewed through the lens of disability studies. By this I mean that I am looking at the history of teachers with disability as the primary marker of social relations, in much the same way that I and others have looked at the history of education through the primary lens of gender, race, and sexuality. Looking at the history of teachers through the analytic framework of disability studies allows me to explore how notions of normality have defined the work and identity of all educators. I begin with a short introduction to the field of disability history. My second and longer section is an initial sketch of a disability history of American teachers. The study of disability in the history of education has centered on the history of special education and on children and adults with special needs. This research is useful in expanding our understanding of the diversity of educational enterprises in the past, the ideologies that undergirded those enterprises, and the formative leaders and cohorts of students in disability education. Yet such studies focus overwhelmingly on students, and the absence of studies about teachers with disabilities leaves the impression that they simply did not exist. In fact, the history of schooling is filled with educators who were identified as disabled, weak, and infirmed. The problem is not that disabilities are absent from the history of teachers, but that historians have not looked for them. As Douglas Baynton, “Disability is everywhere in history, once you begin looking for it, but [it is] conspicuously absent in the histories we write.” Re-reading the history of education through the lens of disability, what emerges is a steady pulse of concern about the ability and disability of teachers to do their work, a constant suspicion that there is something not completely normal about the person sitting at the teacher’s desk.

Jeudi / Thursday 8:30 - 10:30 Room: 1150

1.10. Symposium. Internationalisation de l’hygiène scolaire: circulations des savoirs et des pratiques (XIXe-XXe siècles) / Internationalisation of school hygiene: circulations of knowledge and practices (19th-20th cent.)

Coordinator(s): Séverine PARAYRE; Aurélie RIMBAULT

Discussant: Didier NOURRISSON

L’hygiène est certes une pratique ancienne, mais son apogée en tant que discipline scientifique et médicale se déroula à l’aube du XIXe siècle. Des historiens de la santé et de l’éducation ont abordé dans leurs recherches l’influence de l’hygiène sur les savoirs et pratiques éducatives en milieu scolaire, depuis Jacques Léonard, Georges Vigarello et Pierre Guillaume à Jean-Noël Luc et Françoise Mayeur. De façon plus spécifique, Didier Nourrisson et Séverine Parayre étudient l’hygiène à l’école et les évolutions sanitaires et pédagogiques. Bien que d’autres chercheurs travaillent sur cette thématique dans leur pays respectifs, à l’exemple de Geert Thyssen au Luxembourg, Despina Karakatsanh et Vassiliki Theodorou en Grèce, il n’existe pas pour l’heure de synthèse d’histoire de l’hygiène à l’école en Europe. En effet aux XIXe et XXe siècles, l’hygiène traverse les espaces, les sphères publiques et privées, touche progressivement les acteurs collectifs et individuels, se diffuse dans les pays d’Europe occidentale, formant ainsi un phénomène international de «propagation du mouvement hygiéniste», parcouru par une double volonté de sauvegarde sanitaire et de moralisation des populations. Ce symposium se propose d’aborder l’internationalisation de l’hygiène scolaire au travers de deux interrogations principales et complémentaires. Tout d’abord, il s’agira de réfléchir aux influences et à la transmission des savoirs au sein de l’Europe occidentale de 1852 à 1958. Puis les initiatives locales et les rôles des acteurs politiques, médicaux et pédagogiques seront comparés. Nous exploiterons différentes sources (officielles, médicales, pédagogiques, sociales, architecturales, iconographiques et audiovisuelles) et différentes méthodes (analyse de documents, approches lexicographique, cartographique et analyse de réseau). Séverine Parayre, par une étude des congrès internationaux d’hygiène et d’hygiène scolaire des années 1852 à 1913, mettra en perspective les grands débats en Europe autour de l’hygiène à l’école, les acteurs intervenants et les influences des différents pays. Sur une période similaire, Aurélie Rimbault, mettra en évidence le rôle des édiles parisiens dans l’élaboration d’une politique sanitaire et sociale en faveur de l’enfance. Gina Greene poursuivra sur l’hygiène de la petite enfance en France, en évoquant l’influence sanitaire dans l’architecture scolaire durant la première partie du XXe siècle. Geert Thyssen comparera les savoirs et pratiques dans les écoles de plein air au travers de cinq pays précurseurs du développement de l’hygiène en Europe occidentale. Despina Karakatsanh et Vassiliki Theodorou, présenteront des initiatives locales particulières aux écoles grecques durant la première moitié du XXe siècle. Pour finir Didier Nourrisson, à partir d’une étude iconographique, analysera les différentes formes de propagande d’hygiène scolaire sous la IVe République.

Les crèches en Pologne et l’hygiène: mise en place et influences de l’Europe de l’Ouest (tournant des XIXe et XXe siècles)

Aleksandra PAWLOWSKA, Université René Descartes - CERLIS, ATER à l’Université Lille 3, France

En Europe, les arrangements formels de prise en charge des jeunes enfants remontent pour la plupart au XVIIIe siècle. Certains visaient à répondre aux besoins des femmes pauvres qui travaillaient, ou des enfants abandonnés, tandis que d’autres dispensaient une éducation préscolaire «enrichie» aux enfants des classes moyennes. Un peu partout, en Europe, à partir du XVIIIe siècle, l’enfant va être aussi l’objet d’interventions de plus en plus importantes des pouvoirs publics à son égard, qui intervient progressivement dans la sphère privée pour le protéger, mais aussi, c’est à travers ce dernier qu’on vise l’éducation et le contrôle des familles. Au XIXe siècle, où l’industrialisation fait de plus en plus appel à une main-d’œuvre féminine, la société commence à intervenir davantage dans la garde des enfants, en réglementant l’activité des nourrices et en créant de nouvelles structures: les crèches et les salles d’asile. Destinées à l’accueil des jeunes enfants et à la moralisation des classes populaires, même si elles partagent, initialement, les mêmes objectifs, elles suivront des évolutions différentes. La première sera marquée surtout par les préoccupations hygiénistes, la deuxième par les préoccupations éducatives. Les nouvelles règles d’hygiène, propagées dans les années 1880 par la révolution pastorienne, vont s’appliquer de plus en plus aux crèches. Dès cette époque, les crèches se cloisonnent, se protégeant à tout prix des microbes. Avec les découvertes de Pasteur, on voit se développer, dans tous les pays occidentaux, un grand mouvement de sauvegarde médicalisée de la petite enfance, dans un contexte de mortalité infantile alarmante. S’appuyant sur mes recherches de thèse, cette communication vise une mise en regard comparatif des premières institutions de garde de la petite enfance en France et en Pologne. La différence de l’évolution de la prise en charge de la petite enfance est flagrante. Du côté de la France, nous sommes en face d’une évolution constante et continue de la prise en charge extrafamiliale du jeune enfant, que ce soit par les nourrices, par les crèches ou par les salles d’asile; en Pologne, nous sommes confrontés au développement de la sphère privée qui se charge de la garde. L’évolution des salles d’asile et surtout des crèches fut très lente. Ce retard, par rapport à d’autres pays européens, était dû surtout à une conjoncture historique particulière, liée à la disparition de l’État polonais et au démantèlement du pays en trois territoires étrangers (la Pologne disparaît de la carte de l’Europe et ne retrouve son indépendance qu’en 1918. Toutefois, des ressemblances existent entre la France et la Pologne. La mission principale de la crèche fut d’éviter la mortalité infantile et les risques de contamination; les critères caractérisant une bonne crèche sont essentiellement la qualité des conditions d’hygiène, des soins corporels et de la nourriture. La formation du personnel est entièrement centrée sur l’hygiène. En France, comme en Pologne, la crèche est aussi au coeur d’un discours moral: elle ne se justifie que parce que les mères, étant donné l’état d’indigence du ménage, ne peuvent se passer de travailler. Enfin, la crèche, aussi bien en France qu’en Pologne, ne vise pas uniquement la garde de l’enfant, mais également l’éducation de la mère à la propreté et aux soins (tout comme d’autres mesures de la protection maternelle et infantile).

Édiles parisiens et enfance: une politique humaniste pour la capitale? (1852-1914)

Aurélie RIMBAULT, Université Paris I - Sorbonne, France

L’intérêt du personnel politique français pour l’enfance n’est pas un fait contemporain du seul XXème siècle. Cette préoccupation, se combine en partie avec l’établissement des premières théories hygiénistes du siècle précédent. Paris, n’échappe pas alors à ces préoccupations sur l’éducation à l’hygiène de ces enfants. L’appropriation des pratiques hygiéniques en France et en Europe est un thème largement explicité par les historiens. Georges Vigarello mais aussi Alain Corbin, auteurs d’une imposante synthèse sur l’histoire du corps et de son entretien, est l’une des plus importantes. Si les études se penchant sur l’hygiène de l’enfance restent rares, il convient néanmoins de citer les travaux pionniers de Didier Nourrisson, et la thèse de Séverine Parayre. Nous nous proposons ici, de poursuivre ce thème encore peu exploité, en se penchant sur le rôle du personnel municipal et tout particulièrement des édiles parisiens dans l’adoption progressive de nouvelles pratiques d’hygiène et de santé chez les enfants. Aussi bien les conseillers municipaux que les maires jouent en effet, un rôle important dans l’adoption de nouvelles pratiques d’hygiène, entre 1852 et 1914. Cependant ce rôle ne se situe pas directement dans les écoles communales, mais dans des établissements privés et à la Commission municipale. Ces hommes, plus encore que de pousser les enfants à adopter des pratiques d’hygiène, vont œuvrer à la mise en place d’une politique sanitaire et sociale. Cette dernière, qui se penche aussi bien sur des femmes que des enfants se diversifiera au cours de cette période. Si l’on constate tout d’abord une action édilitaire essentiellement privée, avec la création d’établissements charitables en faveur de l’enfance, l’avènement de la Troisième République, marque l’action progressive de ces hommes au sein du Conseil municipal. Parmi leurs initiatives se trouvent les premières bibliothèques populaires qui vont mettre à la portée des plus jeunes des ouvrages nécessaires au développement des qualités de citoyens. Ils permettent également la création d’écoles privées, dispensant des cours d’hygiène, reprenant ainsi dès le milieu du Second Empire, un thème cher à la Troisième République celui de l’hygiène par l’exemple. Au sein du Conseil municipal, ils vont également largement subventionner les sociétés privées comme des patronages laïques, des dispensaires, crèches et autres orphelinats, afin de permettre aux plus jeunes d’apprendre les derniers préceptes hygiéniques en vigueur. L’action de la municipalité ne s’arrête cependant pas à ce socialisme municipal. Les enfants, forces vives de la Nation, dès les lendemains de la guerre franco-prussienne de 1870, vont également être les objets d’une propagande sanitaire par le biais des traités d’hygiène. Se multipliant à l’attention de leurs mères, les plus jeunes vont alors y apprendre les principales règles de l’hygiène personnelle et à lutter contre les fléaux sociaux naissants. Les sources sont relativement éparses sur ce rôle local des édiles. Les débats et délibérations de la Commission municipale sont officiels. Les autres sources sont plus rares, car peu conservées. C’est le cas notamment des brochures et discours de remise de prix et/ou fêtes scolaires prononcés par les édiles incitant à la préservation de la santé des petits parisiens.

Child Welfare and School Hygiene in Greece: initiatives, measures and influences (1900-1940)

Despina KARAKATSANH, Politique Sociale et Educative, Université du Péloponnèse, Grèce; Vassiliki THEODOROU, Université de Démocrite-Thrace, Grèce

The first serious attempts to deal with the public health problems in Greece were undertaken in the beginning of the 20th century. This period witnessed not only a delay in developments in this area caused by the lack of welfare infrastructure for the social relief, but also a lot of problems due to the settlement of the refugees from Asia Minor in Greece. From the early 20th century a group of physicians attempted to define the health problems within social and economic discourse, while protesting about the absence of public health statistics and the lack of a public health system. These active hygienists, educated abroad, mostly in Paris and Vienna, usually worked as medical officers and tried to convince on one hand the wealthy Greek Diaspora to fund TB dispensaries, sanatoria or other institutions for the relief of indigent patients and on the other the governments to establish institutions in the public health sector. Moreover, they attempted to educate people by explaining sanitation in simple terms to the public and convincing politicians to provide against contagious diseases and take action in order to strengthen those susceptible to diseases, particularly children. The protection of mothers and childhood was considered to be a prerequisite for ensuring racially robust descendents and there were significant steps taken to establish institutions that would improve children’s health. In the 1910s, student poly-clinics, children’s summer camps and an open-air school for children, purportedly prone to consumption, were set up. Such social relief projects, funded by voluntary societies, sought to strengthen the constitution of sickly children from lower social classes. In the rhetoric of this period, the strengthening of the childhood was considered to be the best antidote to the physical deterioration of the nation. The most substantial step taken to that end from the liberal government in 1911 was to establish the School Hygiene Division in order to prevent the spread of transmissible and childhood diseases. In 1914 the first school doctors were appointed and the health of primary school students began to be monitored more systematically as a series of measures were taken. These included the vaccination of all schoolchildren; the introduction of a personal health card - a form of a health identity card for each child, where developmental indices and potential health problems were recorded- and finally the compilation of statistics for students’ morbidity. In this paper we will shed light on the initiatives taken in school hygiene and child welfare from 1908 to 1940. More specifically, we will analyse the role of medical and pedagogical personalities in the establishment of a child welfare policy, the influences from other European models and the major problems they tried to face. More emphasis will be given to the cooperation between physicians and pedagogues in the establishment of progressive institutions for children’s health and to the combination of medical and pedagogical theories in the beginning of the 20th century.

Everyday practice in Belgian, German, French, Italian and Luxembourgian open-air schools and knowledge transfer through international conferences on health education: Evidence of changing notions of ‘internationalism’?

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