International rivalry and the coming of war: the bismarckian system



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AP EURO: LECTURE OUTLINE pp. 700-704

INTERNATIONAL RIVALRY AND THE COMING OF WAR:



THE BISMARCKIAN SYSTEM:
The creation of unified Imperial Germany in 1871 disrupted the balance of power
France hated Germany and wanted revenge for the loss of Alsace-Lorraine
Bismarck forms alliances to isolate France = Germany + Austria + Russia = the Three Emperor’s

League in 1873

THE BALKANS - DECLINE OF OTTOMAN POWER:
Problems in the Balkans =

1. Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire

2. Rivalry between Russia and Austria - control over the Balkans

3. The Congress of Berlin 1878 - Bismarck tries to settle Balkans problems

3. New states in the Balkans - Serbia, Montenegro. Romania, Bulgaria become independent in 1878

4. Bosnia-Herzegovina placed under Austrian protection



NEW ALLIANCES:
Russia is angry about the outcome of the Congress of Berlin - drops out of the Three Emperors League
Bismarck forms new alliance - Germany + Austria + Italy = The Triple Alliance 1882
The Reinsurance Treaty 1887 - Bismarck negotiates a new treaty with Russia
Bismarck’s system of alliances was designed to

1. Preserve peace

2. Maintain the status quo

3. Isolate France


The Bismarckian system works until 1890 when Kaiser William II dismisses/fires Bismarck = “dropping the pilot”

NEW DIRECTIONS AND NEW CRISES:
Kaiser William II’s new direction =

1. Activist foreign policy

2. Enhance German power - “place in the sun”

3. Drops the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia - big mistake


Russia and France form an alliance in 1894

British Foreign Policy =

1. Splendid isolation

2.The Boer War - Britain v. Dutch Boer/Afrikaners in South Africa

3. Boer War makes Britain unpopular - Britain decides it needs allies

4. Industrial and commercial rivalry between Britain and Germany + Germany naval building

5. The Entente Cordiale 1904 = France and Britain become friends
The Moroccan Crisis 1905

1. Germany tries to cause problems over French colonization of Morocco

2. The Algeciras Conference 1906 - France is given control of Morocco

3. Germany looks like a bad guy/trouble maker

4. France, Britain and Russia are driven closer together and they form the Triple Entente in 1907
Triple Alliance = Germany + Austria-Hungary + Italy

versus


Triple Entente = France + Britain + Russia


CRISES IN THE BALKANS 1908-1913:
The Bosnian Crisis 1908-1909 = Austria wants annex the Balkan territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Serbia want Bosnia to create a large Serbia

Germany forces Russia to agree to let Austria annex
The First and Second Balkan War 1912-1913 = chaos and conflict in the Balkans
Austria v. Serbia = rivals in the Balkans

1. Austria is backed by Germany



2. Serbia is backed by Russia
World War I is looming ahead!



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