International Law Outline


United Nations Framework Agreement on Climate Change [Rio]– 1992 (814-15)



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United Nations Framework Agreement on Climate Change [Rio]– 1992 (814-15)

  1. FRAMEWORK convention again.

    1. Developed countries take the lead.

      1. This has been problematic. China/India? – US wants to hold them to account. Need THIRD category.

    2. Reference to “future generations”, reference to “equity” (does it mean anything? In int’l law/)

    3. References Precautionary Principle

      1. Still controversial, but IPCC helps take pressure off PP.

  2. Are countries obliged to DO anything?

    1. One side – yes, they have to adopt SOME policies, and they have to have a particular leaning.

  3. Just trying to get process running.

    1. Included Conference of the Parties (COP)

    2. These commitments to commit – deadlines actually seem to WORK. Force parties to develop policies, come with suggestions, etc.

  4. Entered into force in March 1994 – 189 states ratified by Feb. 2006

  • After Rio, pre-Kyoto

    1. COP meeting in Berlin (March 1995)

      1. Majority of developed states aren’t going to meet GHG goals – but even if they did, it wouldn’t be low enough.

      2. BERLIN MANDATE - Agreed to begin process to strengthen commitments through binding targets/timetables.

        1. Agreed no new commitments for developing states.

    2. Lead up to Kyoto

      1. US – would support binding targets/timetables

      2. July 1997 – US Senate – non-binding resolution – US should not enter into treaty mandating limits/reduction on GHGs UNLESS developing countries also had to limit/reduce AND the treaty didn’t result in “serious harm to the economy”

      3. Fight over targets

        1. European states/US – uniform target for all annex I

        2. Aus, Japan, Iceland, Norway, etc. – differential targets considering disparities in natural resources, energy use and consumption

      4. Once agreed on individual targets – NEGOTIATIONS. No set formula.


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