International Law Outline


London Amendment to the Montreal Protocol – 1989 (795-96)



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London Amendment to the Montreal Protocol – 1989 (795-96)

  1. Accelerate Montreal Protocol’s phaseout schedules, increased which CFCs were covered, accelerated halon phaseout

    1. “financial mechanism” to help developing states meet obligations

      1. Multilateral fund – managed by

        1. World Bank – representing developed countries

        2. Un Environment Programme – for science

        3. UN Development Programme – agency responsible for giving $ to developing countries. Perceived as working for developing countries.

      2. Negative precedent to inducing cooperation with $?

      3. Bad to eliminate pressure on developing countries to deal with issues in efficient fashion?

    2. But also increase sanctions on those that haven’t signed

  • 1991 – list of goods containing CFCs that could only be imported from parties

    1. Number of developing states that joined regime nearly doubled.

    2. Experts – trade restrictions even more important than ozone fund in motivating developing states.

      1. Are they consistent with international trade law?

  • Promoting Compliance

    1. Problems emerge

      1. Russia – phaseouts coincided with economic crises

      2. Black market CFCs smuggled into the west


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