Feb. 27 – Bush orders ceasefire – stopping short of drive to Baghdad
Announced terms for ceasefire
What was the role of IL in determining course of events?
Minimal - US only concerned with protecting oil reserves. Made use of the SC, played the game, but the national security directive made clear that whatever happened, it was going to take action, and just conveniently got approval at the end. But circumvented sanctions regime in the meantime.
Counter: US went to the SC - bringing states along, but went through the system. The norms on the use of force came out formally vindicated. First bush administration very conscious of significance of getting a consensus, and trying to build on broader support. Including fact that invasion PAID for by other states!
GB's decision not to go to Baghdad was dictated not only by prudence (which W didn't share) but taking account of rules of IL. Can use proportionate force, but can't take authorization for use of force to achieve larger goals like regime change.
Mar. 3 – SC Res. 686 (1991) (898) – demands that Iraq implement 12 prior resolutions, rescind claims on Kuwait, cease hostilities with member states, etc.
Apr. 13 – SC Res. 687 (1991) (899-900) – demand Iraq account for detainees, accept responsibility for all harm on foreign states and nationals, return property, renounce terrorism
Established Iraq-Kuwait Boundary Demarcation Commission
Directed Iraq to dismantle WMD, and allow UN to MONITOR/INSPECT weapons production facilities.
Iraq resists efforts to monitor WMD programs
Dec. 16, 1998 – US and British forces – Operation Desert Fox – limit Iraq military capability and limit Iraq’s ability to threaten neighbors