International Law Outline



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uti possidetis – “as you possess” – boundaries have already been determined

  • August 2 – invades Kuwait, announced annexation.

    1. What did this accomplish?

      1. Effectively cancelled its enormous debt to Kuwait

      2. Positioned itself to control Kuwait’s enormous oil wealth

      3. Signaled neighboring Gulf states they could be attacked if they didn’t accommodate Iraq’s oil price policies

      4. Eliminated Iraq’s historical territorial grievance and got full access to Gurlf

  • Leading up to War

    1. August 3 – US invoked International Emergency Economic Powers Act to impose broad economic sanctions

      1. Prohibited trade, froze property and interests, prohibited travel, and barred grant of credits/loans

      2. Eventually – debate about allowing more time for sanctions to WORK.

        1. Jan. 12 – Congress voted to support Bush Administration’s decision to use force.

    2. August 2 – SC Res. 660 (1990) – condemned invasion as BREACH of international peace and security, demanding immediate withdrawal

    3. August 6 – SC Res. 661 (1990) – imposed broad economic sanctions

      1. Affirming “inherent right of individual or collective self-defence”

      2. Under article 51 and chapter VII

    4. August 9 – SC Res. 662 (1990) – denounced Iraq’s “annexation” – called on states not to recognize

    5. August 18 – SC Res. 664 (1990) – demanded Iraq permit departure of third-country nationals, and allow diplomacy and consular missions to continue with full immunity

    6. Fear Iraq would attack Saudi Arabia

      1. US began sending troops to SA

    7. Saddam’s statement

      1. Creating illegitimate national v. non-national distinction

        1. Though military v. civilian distinction okay

    8. August 25 – SC Res. 665 (1990) – permitted member states to use “measures commensurate to the specific circumstances” to halt shipping and enforce embargo

      1. Didn’t formally use words allowing force

        1. But understood that US would so argue

    9. Sept. 25 – SC Res. 670 (1990) - Prohibited air traffic to and from Iraq

    10. October – SC Res. 674 (1990) – stated Iraq would be responsible for any mistreatment of hostages and any damages resulting from invasion

    11. Nov. 29 – SC Res. 678 (1990) – demands that Iraq comply with SC Res 660 by Jan. 15, and authorizes member states to use all necessary means to uphold and implement it if they don’t.

  • 1991 Gulf War

    1. Jan. 12 – Congress votes to support Administration’s decision to use force

      1. Despite voices calling for sanctions to work


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