International Journal of Philosophy


Characteristics of the Times and



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10.11648.j.ijp.20210902.13

5. Characteristics of the Times and
Theories
Marxist Confucianism is different from that of the past, that is, modern and contemporary characteristics, or more precisely, socialist Confucianism [14]. Marxist Confucianism is the main component of Chinese socialist Confucianism.
Modern, socialized mass production and globalization, on the one hand, make the self-consciousness and realization conditions of human nature more sufficient and have vaster approaches, on the other hand, bring new situation to the alienation of human nature. With the development of socialized mass production, the unbalanced and insufficient development is more obvious. Small scale production, machine production, socialized large scale production, automatic production and other production modes coexist, and social system is constantly established and improved, as well as constantly reform and revolutionize. The society changes dramatically, and the system gains and losses are frequent.
Some "smart" people inevitably disobey the rules and become so-called "successful people". It's easy for people to see the huge number of their accumulated wealth and the prestige of their power. But when asked about their moral cultivation and humanistic spirit, they will be barren, dry, and shy, even empty.
Such "successful people" cannot provide the masses of working people with an example of becoming real ideal people.
In the period of reform, the cultivation of human nature is more and more important, and the modernization of
Confucianism is more urgent. Not only do countries and families have alienation of human nature, such as monarch and minister not doing their job, father and son are not real father and son, have alienation of human nature, but also in the whole society, because the level of social productivity is very high, but which cannot be mastered by the masses, leading to the developed social productivity becoming the alienation of the masses. On this basis, the new social relations and superstructure also become the alienation of the masses even


International Journal of Philosophy 2021; 9(2): 90-99 96 opposites. On this basis, the new social relations and superstructure have also become the dissimilation of the masses even opposites. The post-modern philosophy aims at the alienation of human nature. Their deconstruction shows a kind of euphemistic criticism, which is actually a protest against the alienation of human nature in the period of socialized mass production. The main sign is that the private possession of property and the development of private concept lead to resource monopoly, power monopoly, wealth monopoly, knowledge monopoly, technology monopoly, information monopoly and so on. Monopoly leads to the lack of competition and restriction, as well as the lack of social supervision. It is inevitable that power is willful and corruption grows. The worst result is that all kinds of means of production, labor tools, capital and working people are separated or even opposed, which worsens the degree of human alienation. The laborer has nothing but labor force, and has a new performance. The Chinese government's efforts to help the people out of poverty and to win the all-round well-off society in 2020 show that it is very difficult to completely overcome and eliminate the alienation of human nature that "the more workers work, the poorer they will be".
In addition, all kinds of social roles of division of labor are faced with the problem of alienation, that is, humanity does not become humanity. Humanity is not humanity, this has become the modern disease of all members of society. One of the advantages of socialism should be to establish a corresponding socialist system, to ensure the organic unity of workers and means of production, labor tools, science and technology, and to ensure the organic unity of workers and various resources, wealth, knowledge, etc. Thus, in terms of the relationship between workers and production activities, in terms of the means of production, tools of labor, science and technology, workers can handle it better than all previous class societies.
To some extent, it can be said that the establishment and development of Marxist Confucianism is similar to the requirement of the establishment and development of Chinese
Marxist morality, or the development of socialist new
Confucianism; its historical task is to establish and improve socialist morality. In order to build a socialist system civilization, it is necessary to lay a foundation for the socialist rule of law with socialist morality, to provide internal psychological constraints for the majority of workers, to curb the deterioration of human alienation, and to provide theoretical guarantee for the moral well-being of the working people in the socialist period. Socialist morality should include ancient Chinese traditional virtues such as filial piety, fraternity, loyalty, faith, courtesy, righteousness, honesty and shame, as well as modern morality in our country such as freedom, democracy and equality. At the same time, we should develop new morality suitable for the new era. Marxist
Confucianism, to clarify the content of these virtues, Lay the theoretical foundation of these virtues, explore the internal relationship between socialist morality and socialist rule of law, and so on.
Under the condition of socialized production, how can man become an ideal man? The solution of the problem calls for a new form of the moral world view of the unity of man and nature. In the theory of self-cultivation, how can a person become an ideal real person, call for a new explanation and a new method of combination of study and self-restraint, and call for a new era personality of a gentleman, a Xianren(贤人) and a sage. In the theory of enlightenment, we should pay attention to how to help others to become the ideal people, so as to drive the whole society to achieve the ideal society, it calls for the comprehensive development of humanities, social sciences and natural science and technology in the new era.
These problems have become the main theoretical problems to be solved by Marxist Confucianism. On this basis, it is another historical task to formulate and improve the etiquette system and norms in the new era in practice.
The cultivation of human nature in the new era should also emphasize learning. But the content of self-denial must be adjusted. We can't regard human's desire and need as negative human content, or even exclude them from human nature. It is understandable to regard desire as a great beast, corresponding to the lack of production under the condition of small production. However, under the condition of socialized mass production in the new era, social production is developed, products are very rich, even overcapacity appears, and people's legitimate needs or desires can be reasonably met. At this time, Marx's view that needs constitute human nature is more in line with the reality of modern society. The modernization of Confucianism, of course, should start from the new situation of social history and introduce Marx's theory of needs to improve its theory of human nature.
People in the new era should not only make the monarch a monarch(君君), the minister a minister(臣臣), the father a father(父父), the son a son(子子), the husband a husband(夫
夫), the wife a wife(妇妇), the brother a brother(兄兄弟弟), but also require every profession to be devoted to their duties, to make every person a person(人人). For example, in the family, mother, daughter, sisters should also be devoted to their duties. Another example is that schools should promote teachers to be teachers(师师), and students to be students(生
生). If a school doesn't have qualified and ideal teachers and students, it's impossible to do well in education reform. Not only in production and life should people achieve their true self, but also in interpersonal communication, mutual friendship and companionship, have a better life together.
For example, in the new era, we should vigorously study and develop the ethics of companionship to help people become qualified companions. Human beings are social and rational animals. The rational cognition and practice of human can only proceed with the company of each other. People's emotions need to be accompanied, brewed, accumulated, enriched and expressed in the company. People's desires need to be satisfied and sublimed in the company. When encountering human alienation, people need to be accompanied to ease and comfort. The family has the same surname, the home has the same hometown, the study has the classmate, the work has the colleague. Having a common ideal is for comrades and best friends to share weal and woe, and


97
Zhang Maoze: On Marxist Confucianism: The New Direction of China's Ideological
Development in the 21
st
Century even to live and die together. The basis of company morality is that people have common character, human nature is best without evil, and have the basis of one heart and one morality.
People are eager for truth, good and beauty, to abhor falsehood, evil, ugliness, and have the same virtue; people have good sense and good ability, and have the same heart, and the four hearts of compassion, shame, right and wrong and resignation are a little bit of performance. Companionship should be the most basic morality of human being as a community animal.
Social relations such as monarch and minister, father and son, are only the partial expression of accompanying each other.
People need company. Children, adults and the elderly all need it. Success needs to be told, happiness needs to be shared, failure needs to be comforted, and pain also needs to be comforted. It may be difficult to realize the lofty ideal in a short time, but the reality should prevent someone from falling into the abyss of pain. Company is a pain reliever of life pain and an inhibitor of the deterioration of human alienation.
Without Yin(阴), Yang(阳) cannot stand. Without Yang, Yin cannot be achieved. It's hard for a man to be called a family. Is a single king a country? People need heroes, heroes need be followed. Fans need stars, stars need cheers. Patients need to be accompanied and cared for. Healthy people need to express their love to patients. Everyone needs company. The establishment of ideals needs the support of sages, the persistence of ideals needs the courage of comrades, and the realization of ideals needs the cooperation of partners. Real production and life need certain environmental conditions.
Life struggle and social construction cannot be separated from future guidance. Human’s great achievements, whether completed or not, are ultimately expected to be passed on to future generations.
In real life, no one can do without company. There are direct company, asking for help, indirect company and emotional concern. There are accompanied in person, friendly communication; or accompanied by spirit, psychological dependence. Some need more company, some need less company. It is better to have company than to have no company. It is better to have spiritual communication than to have physical company. It is better to have the same aspiration than to have a nodding acquaintance. The company of others is vivid, natural and cordial. They become intimate friends and partners, or comrades and colleagues, but they will change and be unstable. Freedom and democracy gain independence, at the same time, alienation and estrangement, and sacrifice intimacy and companionship. At this time, instead, we should turn around and look at our affectionate partners. As long as we stay together forever, we will not care about our gains and losses. However, we will inevitably be separated from each other in ups and downs. Different from this, the company of the sages, the classic company, is much more lasting and stable. If you need company, please read the classics, talk to heroes in the distance, and make friends with ancient sages.
It's fun.
From the perspective of development, in the company of others, it will gradually develop into self-accompaniment, so that the ideal personality will bloom the brilliance of human nature. From the perspective of consciousness and realization of human nature, inner self-company is in a higher stage, which is more important. To improve the cultivation of company, we should learn self-company as soon as possible and let ourselves talk to ourselves. The introspection that the ancients attached great importance to know themselves was a kind of rational self-accompaniment; the freedom that western sages( 西 贤 ) advocated that let people decide themselves was also a kind of rational self- accompaniment. People "lose" conscience, is to lose their real company, only the reality of their own, lonely in the world, of course, painful. Therefore, Mencius said, "there is no other way of learning, just to pursue its lost conscience."
Because, only the absolute and eternal Tao(道) is absolute and eternal. So Confucius sighed and said, "when you understand Tao(道), you can die overnight."
In the real society, there are still some people who raise birds, cats and dogs and look for animals and birds to accompany them. There are also some people who have become monks or are baptized and believe in gods and follow them as companions. Confucius has long said that people should not be in the same group with animals and birds.
Confucius also said that people should respect gods and ghosts but keep distance with them. And he taught students how can we deal with ghosts if we can't deal with people? According to
Confucianism, people should behave and to become a real person, it's better to find company with others than with birds and animals; it's better to find company with family people, national people and world people, and make friends with human nature and heaven Tao.
In the new era, people who will become ideal people have some practical conditions that the ancients did not have. In ancient times, father become father, son become son, husband become husband, wife become wife, could only be carried out spontaneously by virtue of moral and etiquette norms. In the new era, with the help of the government, we can consciously and systematically carry out family construction work, such as help husband a husband, wife a wife, father a father, son a son, mother a mother and daughter a daughter, on the basis of scientific research. For example, we can ask newlyweds to get marriage licenses on the condition that they participate in the public welfare training courses for husbands and wives held by the Civil Affairs Department, invite experienced and excellent husbands and wives to give lessons to young couples, and introduce their family life experiences and lessons. At the end of the training course, each trainee can write an experience. Another example is that children need birth permit.
We can also use the administrative power of the government to hold public welfare training courses for young fathers and mothers, invite experienced fathers and mothers to give lectures, introduce the experience and lessons of being fathers and mothers, and help young parents. Examination is to write experience. I believe that after training, the young people who did not know how to be a couple or a parent at all will have a certain degree of family confidence and parental confidence.[15]
This requires that Marxist Confucianism is not only the


International Journal of Philosophy 2021; 9(2): 90-99 98 product of the integration of Marxism and Confucianism, but also the product of absorbing other schools of thought and western philosophy. That is to say, in Marxist Confucianism, although there are only two schools in the name of Marxism and Confucianism, but as the academic trend of thought in the new era, it is certainly not limited to these two schools. All schools can be regarded as their sources, and their reasonable thoughts can be included in it, and become a part of Marxist
Confucianism. Marxist Confucianism is an all-round open, not about closing the door and entertaining yourself; Marxist
Confucianism is able to connect with other schools, not stick to the old saying, continue walking in the old steps and seclude oneself.
Marxist Confucianism can also be called the new development of modern new Confucianism in the new era, which is the new era of Confucianism. This kind of development is manifested in the following aspects: in theory, it will be more integrated and dialectical thinking will be carried out to the end; the demonstration and Realization of the main position of the people, the development of the people as people, will become the core topic; the theoretical position of socialized mass production, and the humanistic position of labor in the activities of people as people, will be more prominent. For example, when people in the new era become ideal people, it is not only intellectuals who become ideal people, but also workers in various industries such as agriculture, industry and commerce. This means that Marxist
Confucianism is the national Confucianism, not the elite
Confucianism. Virtue is not alone, there will be neighbors,
"saint is not alone"[16]. The sages of Marxist Confucianism, if any, are not just a few ancients, but must be a group of social workers who interact with each other, closely unite, and be positive and effective.

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