International Journal of Philosophy



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10.11648.j.ijp.20210902.13

3. Internal Basis
The reason why Marxist Confucianism can be established is that in addition to the continuous development of
Confucianism itself and its ability to keep pace with the times, there are also many similarities and complementarities with
Confucianism in Marxist theory[7]. For example, their ideological tendencies are: unity of heaven and man, focusing on people; dialectical thinking, implementing as historical thinking; humanistic and rational belief mode; combination of knowledge and practice, focusing on practice. For example, the Confucian ideal of "the world is for the public" is similar to the Marxist idea of public ownership, and the Confucian politics of abdication, to pick the good and select the capable for public posts, and the democratic politics of the working masses as masters are similar. In addition, there are many thoughts and theories that are close to each other and can support and draw lessons from each other. For example,
Confucian concept of human being as the spirit of all things and Marxism that the masses of the people are the main body of history, the Confucian theory of goodness of human nature and Marx's idea that we materialists also recognize goodness of human nature, the Confucian people-oriented ideological tradition of people's heart and public opinion reflecting the will of heaven and the Marxist idea that the masses of the people are the creators of history. Confucianism's tradition of practice and the most important function of philosophy emphasized by Marx is not only to understand the world, but also to transform it. The Tang Wu revolution of Confucianism, the theory of conforming to nature, and the Marxist revolution are qualitative changes of historical development.
According to the academic circles in the past, there are materialist schools in Confucianism, that is, the realistic
Confucian tradition represented by Yi Zhuan and Xunzi. This
Confucian school attaches great importance to the objective status and basic role of nature in the world view of heaven and man, and emphasizes the realization of the harmony between heaven and man on the basis of the separation of heaven and man, which is consistent with the world view of the unity of
Marx's natural humanization and man's naturalization, and the unity of real humanism and real naturalism. Later, Zhang Zai and Wang Fuzhi developed the theory of Qi, emphasizing that
Qi is the root and foundation of the world, and that Heavenly
Principles and Conscience must depend on Qi, and the materialistic nature of their world outlook is more distinct. In the theory of human nature cultivation, they attach importance to experience, and emphasize that human nature changes its temperament on the basis of learning and self-discipline. This school has developed experience thinking and historical thinking mode in cognition, empirical factors and tendency in classical text interpretation tradition in classics, and paid attention to the educational and political significance of external norms such as etiquette and law in educational practice. In ancient Confucianism, there was a tradition of approaching Marxist world view in world view, which could be an important source of Marxist Confucianism.
At the same time, there is another school in Confucianism, that is, the idealistic tradition represented by Confucius and
Mencius. The classical texts of this school are the four books:
The Analects, The Great Learning, The Doctrine of the Mean,
Mencius, whose ideological content is the Way of Confucius and Mencius. The Way of Confucius and Mencius, as Human
Studies, have a lot in common with Marxism humanitarianism, which can serve as the ideological basis for mutual exchange and integration.
First, in terms of ideological themes, man is the main research object of Confucianism, and being a man and becoming a man are the central content of Confucianism.
Confucianism is the study of human beings, focusing on the study of "man-man"(人人), the study of the problem that


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Zhang Maoze: On Marxist Confucianism: The New Direction of China's Ideological
Development in the 21
st
Century people become true man and real people become ideal people; people become true man, which is reflected in all walks of life in the social division of labor, such as "King-King"( 君
君 ), ”Minister-Minister”( 臣 臣 ), "Father-Father”( 父
父 ), ”Son-Son"( 子 子 ) and so on. The problem of "man-man"(人人) [8], that is, people become people, that is, real people become ideal people, requires people not to materialize downward, such as animalization into animals, or implements into tools, both of which dwarfs the status of human beings and hurt human dignity; it also does not require people to pursue God upward. It only requires people to be a saint, being a man and becoming a man. Confucianism regards people becoming people as the central issue, criticizes and devotes itself to eliminate and overcome the alienation of human nature, which is basically consistent with Marx's thought of making the working people become the real free and all-round developed people.
Second, in the theory of human nature, the connotation of benevolence, righteousness and morality, such as natural principle and conscience, is recognized as the main content of human nature by Confucianism. Desire, need and social relationship are also the contents of human nature, but they are not regarded as original human nature by cultivated people, but as the content of character endowed of Qi(气) that should be continuously improved and generated in cultivation and
Enlightenment around the nature of benevolence, righteousness and morality. This is consistent with Marx's idea that freedom is the essential content of human beings, and that needs and social relations are only to realize the nature of human freedom[9].
Thirdly, in the ideal view, Confucianism only wants people to be human beings and become human beings. The ideal people are gentlemen(君子), xianren(贤人) and sages(圣人).
On this basis, we can build and achieve an ideal society. This proposal on ideal human characteristic and ideal society is consistent with Marx's real humanitarian thought of realizing people's needs, social relations and freedom on the basis of labor, and with the communist ideal of human studies of free and all-round development of everyone.
However,
Confucianism emphasizes the characteristics of ideal personality and ideal society, and emphasizes the cultivation process of realizing ideal personality, while Marx emphasizes the historical process of social practice of achieving the communist ideal society.
Fourthly, in the way of realizing the ideal, both
Confucianism and Marx emphasize to realize the ideal in the social community according to the human sociality.
Confucianism emphasizes being a man and becoming a man, and demands to be carried out in the social community such as family, country and the world, instead of retreating in the mountains and forests, or becoming a monk, or seeking liberation from the shackles of the social community such as family and country. In family, state and other social communities, cultivation correspondingly puts forward family requirements (such as husband-wife, father-son, brothers), countryman requirements (such as monarch- minister), and people all under heaven( 天 下 人 ) requirements (such as benevolence and all the people within the Four Seas are brothers. That is to say, the so-called the Five accessible ways( 五 达 道 ) in The Doctrine of the Mean: monarch-minister(君臣), father-son(父子), husband-wife(夫
妇), brothers(兄弟) and friends(朋友). The requirements of the role ethics of social division of labor, such as
King-King(君君), Minister-Minister(臣臣), Father-Father(父
父), Son-Son(子子), Husband-Husband(夫夫), Wife-Wife(妇
妇 ), Brother-Brother( 兄 兄 弟 弟 ), as the criticism and correction of the role ethics of social division of labor, such as
Monarch is not monarch(君不君), minister is not minister(臣
不臣), husband is not husband(夫不夫), wife is not wife(妇不
妇 ), brothers are not brothers( 兄 不 兄 、 弟 不 弟 ), are fundamentally the same as Marx's pursuit of the freedom as human essence. Marx put forward the great ideal of everyone's free and all-round development. In order to realize this great ideal, we must study more deeply the class nature of people and its gradual emergence and development in productive labor in different historical stages of class society, as well as certain historical class struggle based on this class nature, and examine the social revolution and social reform's influence on social production and life, investigate the human significance of class nature and class struggle for people to become true man, that is, to criticize and correct the alienation of human nature caused by division of labor and private possession of property.
Fifth, in the view of spiritual home, there is faith or belief in
Confucianism, committed to the establishment of Chinese spiritual home, in which there is a lofty ideal, enlightenment and exhortation of people to do good, so that people abide by the rules and have the bottom line. The religious performance of Confucianism has the characteristics of humanistic and rational belief. It criticizes the temples for worshiping unorthodox gods(淫祠), flattering prayer(谄祷), criticizes and denies superstition, which is very close to the humanistic and rational characteristics of the communist belief advocated by
Marxism.
Communist politics can be said to be the true realization of
Confucian moral rule. If there is no class, no country, no violent machine in the Communist society, there will be not compulsory law, and the rule of law cannot be implemented, only the rule of virtue can be implemented. In the Communist society, everyone develops freely and comprehensively, human nature is fully conscious and realized, human nature cultivation is in a high level, everyone is highly conscious, self-discipline, autonomy, freedom, compulsory norms such as laws, etc., lacking human nature and psychological basis, so it is no longer needed. Labor is the internal first need of human which pursue to be human. The union of free people can organize social production and life, let everyone control the developed social productivity, and make it completely become the labor ability of the working masses. At this time, the risk of human alienation brought by labor division, market transaction and private possession of property has been reduced to the lowest level, and the continuation of religion, law and so on has lacked the social and historical basis.


International Journal of Philosophy 2021; 9(2): 90-99 94

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