International Handbook on ‘Tourism and Peace,’



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Name

Dates

Peace Achievement

Cincinnatus

519-430 BC

Resigned Roman dictatorship

Born in the 18th Century

Black Hoof

c1740-1831

Advised other Indians to avoid “Tecumseh;s War”

Little Turtle

c1747-1812

Ended 40 years of war by signing Greenville peace treaty

William Wilberforce

1759-1833

Led British effort to end slavery in 1833. Member of Parliament.

Lyman Beecher

1775-1863

Famous minister & abolitionist. Father of accomplished family.

Sir Thomas Buxton

1786-1845

Brewer, abolitionist & reformer. Member of Parliament.

Josiah Henson

1789-1883

Former slave. Settled in Ontario, Canada.

Frances Wright

1795-1852

Abolitionist & newspaper editor. Born in Scotland.

Horace Mann

1796-1859

“Father of the American public school system”

Levi Coffin

1798-1877

Quaker abolitionist. Ran Underground RR “Grand Central Station”

Born in the 19th Century

James Bradley

c1800-?

Former slave. Captured in Africa. Bought his own freedom.

Abraham Lincoln

1809-1965

President of USA. Issued Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.

Isaac Harvey

1809-1883

Quaker farmer. Visited President Lincoln to end slavery.

Daniel Alexander Payne

1811-1893

Methodist bishop & educator. Founded Wilberforce College.

Harriet Beecher Stowe

1811-1896

Abolitionist. Wrote influential novel “Uncle Tom’s Cabin.”

Martin Robinson Delaney

1812-1885

Physician. Officer in US Army. "Father of Black Nationalism."

John Freeman Walls

1813-1911

Former slave. Settled in Ontario, Canada.

Elizabeth Blackwell

1821-1910

Born in England. First female medical graduate in USA.

Charles Young

1864-1922

West Point graduate. 1st Black national park superintendent.

Mahatma Gandhi

1869-1948

Led nonviolence in South Africa & India. Later sculpted in Ohio.

Nancy Brown

1870-1948

Newspaper columnist. Celebrated US-Canadian friendship.

Paul Lawrence Dunbar

1872-1906

Black poet & playwright. Built house in Dayton, Ohio.

Arthur Ernest Morgan

1878-1975

Engineer & educator. Founded Community Service Inc. (CSI).

Born in the 20th Century

Theodore (Ted) Berry

1905-2000

First African-American mayor of Cincinnati, Ohio

Charles Brooks

1915-1977

Labour leader in Windsor, Ontario. Assassinated by opponent.

Barbara Leonard Reynolds

1915-1990

Quaker. Founded World Friendship Center in Hiroshima, Japan.

Masahisa Goi

1916-1980

Philosopher. Started peace poles (“May Peace Prevail on Earth”).

Charles Howard Wright

1918-2002

Physician. Opened Museum of African-American Hist. in Detroit.

James W. Bristah

1919-2008

Minister. Opened Swords into Plowshares Peace Center in Detroit.

Charles H. Rosenzveig

1920-2008

Polish Rabbi. Opened Holocaust Memorial Center in Detroit.

Coretta Scott King

1927-2006

Wife of MLK, Jr. Attended Antioch College in Yellow Springs.

Martin Luther King. Jr.

1929-1968

Minister & civil rights leader. Assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee

Richard Holbrooke

1941-2010

Diplomat. Negotiated Dayton Peace Accords to end war in Bosnia.

Wayne Carlisle

1941-Alive

Businessman. Erected 1999 World Peace Bell in Newport, KY

Sadako Sasaki

1943-1955

Hiroshima victim. Tried to fold 1,000 peace cranes before death.

A. Zziz Chowdhury

?-Alive

Librarian from Bangladesh. Donated Peace Clock to Windsor, ON


VI. Conclusions

-- Tourists travel to play golf, to take adventure tours, and to visit battlefields, but relatively few tourists currently seek peace as a destination. An obvious reason is that the public is largely unaware of the tourism value of peace places and peace activities.

-- The public is in fact largely unaware of "peace" as a category of tourism interest and of the many different meanings and themes of “peace.” To create “peace tourism,” the public needs to become increasingly aware of the many meanings of “peace” and of the many interesting “peace tourism” options.

-- There is virtually no peace tourism industry today. The existing tourism industry (airlines, hotels, tourism promotion agencies, and travel writers) overlooks "peace" as a tourism destination. Peace places and activities are rarely advertised or shown in popular guide books.

-- University peace studies departments, peace activist associations, and other organizations which make a conscious effort to promote peace and justice do so largely within their own boundaries and in isolation from the traveling public.

-- Public awareness has not caught up with peace scholarship which increasingly defines "peace" as having both positive and negative themes, only one of which is the end of war. The vast number of peace themes confuses the public and prevents peace tourism from competing with simpler tourism "brands" like golf, beach resorts, U.S. Civil War history, African safaris, and theme parks.

-- Peace tourism nevertheless already exists (knowingly or unknowingly) in places like New York City and Hiroshima which have concentrations of peace monuments and museums.

-- On a national level, an abundance of peace monuments and museums indicates that the ten countries most likely to benefit from peace tourism development (on a per capita basis) are Israel, New Zealand, the Nether-lands, Switzerland, Austria, the United Kingdom, Norway, the USA, Canada, and Belgium -- in that order.

-- The case study proves that there are enough peace monuments and museums in one short (360 mile) stretch of highway to occupy a serious "peace tourist" for several days. Similar corridors exist elsewhere.

-- The 18 museums and 82 other peace monuments in the study area collectively illustrate the history of mankind's striving in multiple ways to bring about peace and justice for all, and the peace stories they tell contribute to an overall appreciation of "peace" which is far greater than the sum of their individual stories.

-- The study area is not unique. Doubtlessly, there are many other areas in the USA and abroad where other peace monuments and museums (representing different peace stories) could alkso become the foundation of peace tourism..

-- Especially when interpreted by an experienced facilitator or guide, these "peace places" could instruct, inspire, and/or entertain a variety of different age and interest groups: Children, students, history buffs, church groups, peace activists, retirees, and others.

-- Until peace tourism becomes established, tourists will continue to use the same roads and hotels to seek and find forms of tourism with which they are familiar (or which have been sold to them by professional marketers), such as beaches, boating, theme parks, music festivals, competitive sports, gun shows, the Civil War, military reenactments, air shows, and battlefields. The overall effect of such forms of tourism is to help perpetuate the culture of war or violence.

VII. Recommendations

-- Find ways for stakeholders of the tourism industry and of peace organizations to interface and create innovative ways to market peace tourism to the traveling public of all countries.

-- Strengthen the International Network of Museums for Peace (INMP), the Federation of International Human Rights Museums (FIHRM), the International Coalition of Sites of Conscience (ICSC), and other non-govern-mental organizations which are trying to bring about cooperation and coordination among museums for peace and other peace places.

-- Encourage peace activist organizations and university peace studies departments to reach out to peace tourists and to welcome them into local peace activities.

-- Publish directories (in print and on-line) of peace places, peace sites, and peace destinations. Create a multilingual, searchable on-line directory of peace activities taking place in all countries throughout the year.

-- Ensure that the public learns the peace stories (and peace tourism possibilities) of cities with peace monument and museum concentration, for example (in alphabetical order) Ahmedabad, Atlanta, Belfast, Berlin, Geneva, Hiroshima, Jerusalem, Kyoto/Osaka, London, Nagasaki, New Delhi, New York City, Philadelphia, The Hague, San Juan (Costa Rica), Tokyo, Vienna, and Washington, DC

-- Encourage the artists, city fathers, and museum curators responsible for existing peace monuments and museums for peace to become acquainted with each other and to promote themselves under a common theme -- peace -- perhaps establishing a new brand to market themselves to potential peace tourists.

-- Create a peace tourism "brand" or logo which could be used to identify organizations sponsoring study tours and workshops, peace studies departments and peace activists willing to meet with the public, the sites of peace achievements, and of course peace monuments and museums for peace.

-- Perhaps redefine and reinstate the "Banner of Peace" originally promoted by Russian artist Nicholas Roerich to identify and protect places of important cultural heritage.

-- Conduct research to identify additional peace places adding to the world’s already impressive number of peace stories. (The case study suggests that places related, in particular, to the removal of Native Americans, to the Underground Railroad, to women's suffrage, to pacifism and the anti-war movement, and to the civil rights and labor movements are yet to be identified.)

-- Encourage local colleges, universities, churches, and other institutions interested in "peace" to become aware of their regions' potential for peace tourism (both near and far) and to adapt their programs to help tell their regions' many peace stories to the public (residents and tourists alike).

-- Create regional peace tourism associations to help bring about self-awareness and public awareness of regional peace tourism potential. Advise such associations to limit their initial actions (for example, a brochure and website describing the region's peace monuments and explaining what they have in common) until information is obtained on further steps which could be taken.

-- Advise peace tourism advocates to reach out and form partnerships with like-minded advocates in other areas in order to help bring about an appreciation of peace tourism nationally and internationally, perhaps in concert with the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO).

About the Author

Edward W. Lollis is a retired U.S. Foreign Service Officer who specialized in Africa, international energy policy, and development economics during his career. He studied at Yale University, Princeton University, the University of Wisconsin Madison and the University of Melbourne in Australia. He worked in Canada, the Dominican Republic, England, France, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Rwanda, and the USA. Since retiring from the Department of State, he was Executive Secretary of the U.S. Committee for the Bicentennial of the French Revolution (Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen) and then worked as a geographic analyst. He has written or lectured about peace monuments and museums for the Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace, the Peace and Justice Studies Association, the International Network of Museums for Peace, and Rotary International. He maintains an on-line database of "Peace Monuments Around the World" (at http://www.peacepartnersintl.net) and recently published "Monumental Beauty: Peace Monuments and Museums Around the World."




1 “Peace museums” in Chicago and Lincoln, Nebraska, have not survived. Others have been organized in New York City and Philadelphia but do not yet have physical premises.


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