DRAFT for “International Handbook on ‘Tourism and Peace,’”
United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
and Center for Peace Research and Peace Education,
Alpen-Adria-Universität, Klagenfurt, Austria, 2013.
Peace tourism is traveling to experience the places and activities that authentically represent peace stories and peacemakers of the past and present. Peace activities require varying degrees of planning and preparation. But peace places -- primarily monuments and museums -- are static and available to the tourist most any time.
Public awareness has not caught up with peace scholarship which increasingly defines "peace" as having both positive and negative themes, only one of which is the end of war. The vast number of peace themes -- 86 examples are named here -- confuses the public and prevents peace tourism from competing with simpler tourism "brands" like golf, beach resorts, U.S. Civil War history, African safaris, and theme parks.
Peace tourism nevertheless already exists in places like New York City and Hiroshima which have concentra-tions of peace monuments and museums. On a national level, an abundance of peace monuments and museums indicates that the ten countries most likely to benefit from peace tourism development (on a per capita basis) are Israel, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria, the United Kingdom, Norway, the USA, Canada, and Belgium -- in that order.
A case study is presented to demonstrate that peace tourism can also take place on a regional scale. A 360 mile (583 kilometer) highway corridor in the United States of America and Canada contains 100 peace monuments (including 15 “museums for peace”) and “authentically represents” ten different peace stories and at least 36 notable historic peacemakers. Similar corridors also exist elsewhere.
This paper concludes that many cities and corridors with concentrations of peace monuments are of sufficient interest to sustain peace tourism, provided that visitors appreciate the variety of peace themes which exist in any given city or region. To increase visitors' appreciation, the artists, city fathers, and museum curators respon-sible for peace monuments and museums should work together to promote peace tourism. Collectively, they could tell stories of peace and justice which are far greater than the sum of the individual parts.
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This Handbook considers "Tourism and Peace" from many different perspectives. I assume that other authors address the relationships (both good and bad) between "peace" and any and all kinds of tourism. In this paper, I address "peace" not as the resultof tourism but as the object or desired destination of one particular kind of tourism -- peace tourism.