Major Collaborative Research Initiative (MCRI) on Global Suburbanisms
The City Institute at York University
Bartlett School of Planning, University College London
Center for Urban & Regional Studies,Institute of Population Research,Fudan University
Centre for Modern Chinese City Studies, East China Normal University
Institute of Urban and Demographic Studies, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences
Institution: University of California, Berkeley
Including the Poor: The Land Question Over four decades ago, sociologist and urban theorist, Manuel Castells had called for the social sciences to pay heed to the “urban question.” In this presentation, I argue for a shift from the urban question to the land question. Focusing on the economic powerhouses of the global South, such as India, I examine how state interventions in the ownership, use, and redistribution of land are key to today’s metropolitan transformations. While a great deal of research, including my previous work, has paid attention to land grabs, land titling and settlements also deserve careful analysis. Using the case of a variety of policies and programs, I foreground such land settlements and the numerous dilemmas they provoke. The land question must be understood though at a global scale. Also in this presentation, I outline how poor people’s movements wage a politics of land and how such mobilizations and strategies are increasingly connected in global networks of solidarity and protest. I ask whether, in the context of global urbanisms, such struggles are able to reimagine relations of property and thereby resignify the land question.
Biography: Ananya Roy is Professor of City and Regional Planning and Distinguished Chair in Global Poverty and Practice at the University of California, Berkeley. She teaches in the fields of urban studies and international development. She also serves as Education Director of the Blum Center for Developing Economies. In this capacity, she is founding chair of the undergraduate program in Global Poverty and Practice. From 2009 to 2012, she served as co-director of the Global Metropolitan Studies Center. She is the author of several books, including City Requiem, Calcutta: Gender and the Politics of Poverty (University of Minnesota Press, 2003), co-editor of Urban Informality: Transnational Perspectives from the Middle East, South Asia, and Latin America (with Nezar AlSayyad; Lexington Books, 2004); Worlding Cities: Asian Experiments and the Art of Being Global (with Aihwa Ong, Blackwell 2011); and Poverty Capital: Microfinance and the Making of Development (Routledge, 2010).
Institution: East China Normal University
Institution: East China Normal University
Evolution of Population Structure and Spatial Distribution in Shanghai since 2000 Since 2000, the social-economy conditions of Shanghai has been developing rapidly, which results from the transformation of city function, the adjustment of industrial structure, the transition of the old city, and the city renewal. Correspondingly, the population structure and spatial distribution in Shanghai has made a big change. Based on data from the Fifth and Sixth National Census of Shanghai, this paper analyzed the characteristics of population changes and spatial distribution since 2000. The research findings reveal that the trend of multi-center population pattern is strengthening, and the floating population dominating the growth in suburbs becomes the population growth center of Shanghai. However, Shanghai also faces with several problems, such as population aging, shortage of professional and technical personnel, floating population pouring, high population density in the inner city, and lacking driving force of the population decentralization. The current population decentralization is mainly led by industrial suburbanization and residential suburbanization. Nevertheless, the high-quality public service and infrastructure concentrated in the inner city, lacking Mass Rapid Transit to the suburbs and slow construction of new city hindered the population decen-tralization. To conclude, the sustainable development of population in Shanghai still faces great challenges in the future.
Biography: Dan He is an Associate Professor of the Center for Modern Chinese City Studies (CMCCS), one of Key Research Institutes of Humanities and Social Sciences of Ministry of Education, at East China Normal University (ECNU). He graduated from the University of Tokyo as a major in Urban and Regional Planning with a PhD. His research interests are Urban Geography and Urban & Regional Planning. He is the first author of Evolution of Population Structure and Spatial Distribution in Shanghai since 2000 (2014), Formation of Pro-growth Urban Regime and Urban Development in Shanghai since 1990 (2008). He has been in charge of two research projects supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and published more than 40 articles in domestic academic journals.
Yuemin Ning is Professor and Director of The Center for Modern Chinese City Studies, one of key research institute of humanities and social sciences in universities, at East China Normal University. His research mainly focuses on urban geography, urban planning. He is the first author of From Spatial Division of Labor to Spatial Organization in Metropolitan Areas (in Chinese, 2011), Spatial Organization of Enterprise and Development of City-region (in Chinese, 2011), History of Chinese Cities (in Chinese, 1994), co-authors of Introduction to Urban Geography (in Chinese, 1983) and Urban Geography (in Chinese, 1997, 2009), and has published over 80 Chinese or English articles. He is the editor-in-chief of Chinese Urban Studies.
Institution: University College London
Biography: Fulong Wu is Bartlett Professor of Planning at the Bartlett School of Planning, University College London, whereby he holds the position of director for research and joint coordinator for the China Planning Research program. He has published numerous papers on urban spatial structure, urban housing and land development, and is working on Chinese urbanism and urban development, urban and regional governance, urban poverty, and social spatial differentiation. His research includes China’s urban development and planning and its social and sustainable challenges. He is co-editor of Restructuring the Chinese City (Routledge, 2005), Marginalization in China (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), International Perspectives on Suburbanization (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), editor of Globalization and the Chinese City (Routledge, 2006), China’s Emerging Cities (Routledge, 2007), Rural Migrants in Urban China (Routledge, 2013), and co-author of Urban Development in Post-Reform China: State, Market, and Space (Routledge, 2007), and Urban Poverty in China (Edward Elgar, 2010).
Institution: York University
The Global Suburb: Divesting From the World's White Picket Fences This presentation reports on the role internationally scaled, comparative suburban research can play in the formation of a retooled urban studies that reacts to criticisms of deficits in inclusiveness. From there stems the acknowledgment that the script of urban theorizing has to be rewritten from scratch. The suburbs are a good place to start that intellectual journey. It is from the emerging geographies of non-European and non-American (sub)urbanity that the architectures of urban theory await rebuilding. Some of the main questions to be asked in this context will be: How and where will we be ‘housed’ in the remainder of this century? How will we be ‘moved’ between life, work and play? How will our settlement structures influence how we will be ‘governed’? This presentation will begin to address these questions systematically on the basis of the Global Suburbanisms research initiative.
Biography: Roger Keil is a Professor of Environmental Studies at York University. His research focuses on global suburbanization, cities and infectious disease, and regional governance. He is the Principal Investigator of a Major Collaborative Research Initiative on “Global Suburbanisms: Governance, Land and Infrastructure in the 21st Century” (2010-2017). He is the editor of Suburban Constellations (Jovis 2013), Suburban Governance: A Global View (with Pierre Hamel, UTP); A co-editor (with Neil Brenner) of the first edition of the Global Cities Reader. He has published, amongst other works, the In-between Infrastructure (ed. with Douglas Young and Patricia Burke Wood, Praxis(e) Press, 2011); Changing Toronto: Governing the Neoliberal City (with Julie-Anne Boudreau and Douglas Young; UTP 2009); Networked Disease: Emerging Infections and the Global City. (ed. with S.Harris Ali; Wiley-Blackwell, 2008). He was recipient of the President’s Research Excellence Award in 2013 at York University and most recently awarded Tier 1 York Research Chair in Global Sub/Urban Studies in recognition of his research contributions to the field of urban and environmental research.
Institution: Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences
Suburbs Mosaic and its Evolution in Mega Cities of China Diverse population, different communities, multi-culture and live styles are now shaping the new suburbs of today’s mega-cities in China. This paper studies the evolution of the Suburbs Mosaic, especially on the population Mosaic. By means of the census data and field trip data, it finds that China’s metropolis such as Beijing and Shanghai are experiencing an obvious population mosaic. It analyses the common feature of the suburbs mosaic. It argues that suburbs mosaic is mostly caused by the rapid urbanization, diversified population structure, urban sprawl and suburbs development, urban renewal, and so on. Besides, the Hukou policy and urban planning are also main factors which affect its development. The city authorities should pay more attention to the suburbs mosaic because the suburbs population mosaic does not always be good to suburbs development. It maybe have influence on some minors social segregation status. Therefore, it is very important for us to know what and how the different population groups are living. City authorities should take full considerations to prevent the suburbs’ population mosaic development from any social problems.
Biography: Hongxia Wang is professor of Institute of Urban and Demographic Studies and an assistant director of Center for Urban & Regional Studies, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences. Her research fields include population urbanization, spatial economics, urban and regional development. As a leader, she has finished a research program on population urbanization in suburbs in big cities in China, which is sponsored by Chinese national philosophy and social science fund. She is also a very important consultant of Shanghai municipal government, mostly advising on the national and municipal social and economic development.
Institution: Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences
Biography: Qiyu Tu is Professor and the Deputy Director of Institute of Urban and Demographic Studies，Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences. He serves as the Board Member in the Planning Committee of Shanghai Municipality as well as the Advisory Board of 12th Five Year Plan of Beijing Municipality. He was Official Advisor to the Shanghai World Expo 2010 and Fulbrighter at Bard College, New York. His research interests include urban strategic planning, regional innovation system and world city studies. He is the author of 8 books and more than 40 papers. Since 2012, He publishes Blue Book of World Cities annually. He was the First-class Prize Winner of Shanghai Social Sciences Fund in 2000 and the Joint Winner of the First-class Prize for Decision-making Consultation from Shanghai Municipal Government in 2005, and has also been awarded the Excellent Service Prize as Returning Talents from Overseas. As an energetic social activist, he was the member of 10th National Congress of All China Youth League and the Deputy Secretary-General of Shanghai Youth League. He has been named as Man of Year 2003 in Economics or Business in Shanghai. He is an attendee of Asia 21 Young Leaders Summit, Euro-Asia Young Leaders Forum as well as Asia-Pacific Youth Forum. He gave speeches in Welton Park Conferences, New York – Shanghai Forum and the Week of Innovation Region Europe. He has been interviewed by New York Times, Financial Times, China Business Network, Dragon TV, and Shanghai TV.
Institution: Fudan University
Urbanization Process of Shanghai: 1990-2010 Drawing on Urban Development Cycle Theory (Klaassen, L.H. and Kawashima, T.), this paper systematically investigates the urbanization process of Shanghai from 1990-2010. The process of urbanization in Shanghai basically corresponded to the Urban Development Cycle Theory and the Urban Population Distribution Mode. In 2010, the urbanization process of Shanghai has stepped into the early suburbanization stage in which the distribution of urban population is becoming relatively dispersed. In the future, as Shanghai’s urbanization continues, the total population will increase and the urban system is to evolve into a more mature one.
Biography Guixin Wang is Distinguished Professor and Director of Institute of Population Research, Director of Center for City and Regional Development, and Director of academic steering committee of the School of Social Development and Public Policy, Fudan University. His academic interests are migration and urbanization, urban and regional sustainable development and decision system, population, resources, and environmental economics analysis, as well as management and evaluation, etc. He has published over 250 articles in key academic journals at home and abroad, 8 published books, and 12 co-authoring books. He was the Principal Investigator for more than 20 research projects sponsored by China’s National Social Science Foundation and National Natural Science Foundation. He was recipient of 3 top academic awards including Excellence Award of Shanghai Philosophy and Social Sciences, 8 secondary awards and more than ten tertiary awards at national or provincial level.
Institution: University of British Columbia
Imaging / Imagining / Naming the Indonesian Suburb. (Freek Colombijn and Abidin Kusno) This collaborative research project traces the naming and the meaning of the “peri-urban” as articulated in the office of the municipality and developers as well as in the perceptions of local residents. It will look at the formation of the peri-urban area in an Indonesian city at the intersection of urban politics and memories, and how the peri-urban was identified, named and invested with meanings across different regimes of power. It will consider three interrelated layers of times: colonial, postcolonial eras of Sukarno and Suharto and contemporary era of decentralization. With materials from Dutch and Indonesian sources, we will take into account the roles of government, developers, scholars, geographers, urban designers, planners, and members of civil society in forming and transforming the identities of the “suburb” via the practices of naming.
Biography: Abidin Kusno is a Professor in the Institute of Asian Research at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, where he teaches in the field of history and theory of architecture and urbanism, and Indonesian/Southeast Asian studies. He holds Canada Research Chair in Asian Urbanism and Culture Tier II and also serves as co-director of Centre for Southeast Asian Research. He has served on the editorial boards of Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, Journal of Architectural Education, Journal of Planning History, Pacific Affairs, as well as on the International Advisory Board of Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. Furthermore, he is the author of several books in English and Indonesian, the most recent of which include After the New Order: Space, Politics and Jakarta (Hawaii University Press, 2013) and The Appearances of Memory: Mnemonic Practices of Architecture and Urban Form in Indonesia (Duke University Press, 2010).
Institution: Tongji University
From Urban Sprawl to Land Consolidation in the Suburban Shanghai: A Perspective of Property Rights Reconfiguration Since the 1980s, China has witnessed significant city growth, and the Chinese version of urban sprawl emerged all over the country. Within the last more than two decades, the non-agricultural land of Shanghai expanded quickly, more than doubled. Under the strict land quota system, Shanghai municipal government has to transform the Greenfield development approach to the land consolidation strategy. Based on the policy of “Increase and Decrease Connection of Urban and Rural Construction Land”, Shanghai government started to consolidate the rural construction land of low efficiency. This paper firstly examines the expansion of non-agricultural land in Shanghai since 1990, and explains the policy arrangements of land consolidation from the perspective of property rights configuration of state land and collective land. Then it introduces the planning response to the reduction of rural construction land and relocation of the factories and rural communities-- the township-based land readjustment plan. Taking Xinbang Township as an example, this paper examines the roles of various stakeholders, the district government, the township government, and farmers in the land consolidation. It concludes with discussion and policy implications in the future land consolidation.
Biography: Li Tian is the Professor of Urban Planning at Tongji University, Shanghai. Her research focuses on urbanization, land use and property rights. She has published 6 Chinese books, and one English book “Property Rights, Land Values and Urban Development” by Edward Elgar in 2014. Moreover, she published 7 English papers in International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Land Use Policy, Cities, and Journal of Property Research, and over 50 Chinese paper in Chinese top planning journals. She is also one of the guest editors of two special issues: “Inclusive Urbanization” in Cities, and the other “Urban and Rural Transition of China under the New Urbanization” in Habitat International, which will be forthcoming by the end of 2015.
Institution: Fudan University
Estimating the value of migration: floating population’s contributions to urban revenue This study introduces a framework for estimating direct revenue provided to local coffers by so-called floating population, a synonym of migrants in the Chinese context. It proposes that the financial contribution made by floating population can be decomposed into three aspects of legally mandated payments: income tax or business tax, consumption-related tax, and obligation to pay for local social security funds. Our analysis demonstrates that fiscal contribution based on floating population’s labor and consumption is not so much as their contribution caused by the loss of social security entitlements. We also find that the contribution made by floating population cannot cover the expenditure need that would arise if such population were granted an access to local public goods.
Biography: Li Zhang is a Professor at the School of Social Development and Public Policy at Fudan University. His current work focuses on China’s population policy. He has published a number of articles in academic journals, such as Population and Development Review, Urban Studies, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, China Quarterly, GeoForum, China Review, and The China Journal.
Institution: Sun Yat-sen University
Assemblage, entrepreneurial suburbanism and the restless (re)making of suburbia in China This study examines the transformation of suburban communities in the last three decades in Pearl River Delta (PRD), a key laboratory for the market-led and open-door experiments of the People’s Republic of China. As a world factory, PRD attracted billions of foreign capitals, millions of migrants, and hundred thousands of factories that reshaped its landscape. Now it is marked by the heterogeneity of social space, i.e. urbanized villages, factory blocks, commodity/social housing estates, university/science towns, cultural, ethnic, or economic enclaves clustering e-commerce traders, and so on. I argue that the restless (re)making of this assemblage is indicative of dynamic entrepreneurial suburbanism, i.e. the accumulation of capital, the financialization of land, and the bottom-up practices of local states, collectives or individuals, together with its resultant empowerment of property rights, political awareness, and (re)configuring identity. I contribute to the literature by presenting entrepreneurial suburbanism as a way of life and spatial production, especially against the context of developing or transitional economy.
Biography: Zhigang Li is a Professor of Urban Studies and Planning at the Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Most of his studies focus on the sociospatial transformation of Chinese cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, and he works widely on consultancy projects or in research for cities in southern China including Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Dongguan. His recent research works include transitional cities, planning and urban enclaves. He has published on residential segregation, urban housing and migrant enclaves in post-reform Chinese cities. Since 2006 he has been the Principal Investigator of three research projects funded by China’s NSF, together with several other projects funded by organizations such as the Ministry of Education of the PRC and Guangdong Province NSF. As one of the best-known urban scholars in south China, he holds the position of Deputy Chief of Chinese Young Geographer Union, and the Chinese Editor of Urban Studies.
Paul Bailey,Cara Chellew,Anthony Dionigi,Justin Fok,Victoria Ho, Priscilla Lan Chung Yang,Dilya Niezova,Nelly Volpert,Cathy Zhao
Institution: York University
Canadian and Chinese urbanism in comparison: some basic ideas Drawing on China's Urban Transition (Friedmann, 2005) and Planning for Growth: Urban and Regional Planning in China (Wu, 2015), we will attempt to demonstrate how we understand urbanization has unfolded in China, with particular focus on Shanghai. Based on this simple knowledge of planning in China, we will present a few core principles of Canadian urban planning. We will end the presentation with some questions in regards to our particular academic interests, which we would like to explore during our workshop in Shanghai: public space, social justice and urban design (Cara Chellew, Nelly Volpert), cultural planning & creative districts (Paul Bailey), food and agriculture (Victoria Ho, Dilya Niezova), public transportation (Anthony Dionigi, Justin Fok), disaster management (Priscilla Lan Chung Yang), and energy planning and sustainable growth (Cathy Zhao). We hope that in a concluding discussion with the present audience, we will get some guidance on how to tackle these questions during our field course in Shanghai.
Institution: Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences
Spatial Distribution, Evolution and Driving Force of Floating Population: A case study of Shanghai city, China, from 2000 to 2010 Based on the data of fifth and sixth census, the paper studied the spatial distribution，spatial evolution and driving force of floating population in Shanghai metropolitan area from 2000 to 2010 with using statistics analysis method and space measurement model. The empirical analysis indicates that, the spatial distribution of floating has extended from central city to whole city from 2000 to 2010 during transformation period in Shanghai. Floating population took as basic social influencing factor, currently local population and floating population live mixed. Space location, private economy, rent levels and investment in urban infrastructure construction have become the five most significant determinants of spatial distribution of floating population.
Biography: Zhituan Deng is Associate Professor of the Institute of Urban and Demographic Studies, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences. His main research interests are urban strategy and urban development. He has a PhD in economics and has published two books including Urban Spatial Transformation of Shanghai (2013), and more than 20 papers in China, such as The re-design of urban functions and re-organization of urban space forced by Innovation-driven development model (2013), The change and its mechanism of non-registered population’s socio-space in Shanghai (2014), and The transfer of surplus labor in rural and the change of regional industrial structure in China (2005).
Institution: Shanghai Urban Planning & Design Research Institute
Capital Circuit and Competitive Advantage: a theoretical analysis of Impediments of Shanghai’s Urbanization With urbanization gradually becomes one of national strategies, Shanghai, as China's largest city, its urbanization path is particularly critical. By analyzing the characteristics of urban development in Shanghai and integrating the theories of “capital circuit" and "competitive advantage", this paper proposed “capital logics” of urbanization as a theoretical tool to analyze the inner impediment of Shanghai’s urban development. Based on the analysis of nearly 30 years empirical data of Shanghai’s economy, this article states that because of the path dependency of land-based finance revenues and real estate driven economy breaks three-fold circuits of capital, Shanghai jumped from investment-driven to wealth-driven economy, without going through innovation-driven stage, and therefore incurred the plight of development.
Biography: Song Shi , Ph.D, senior engineer, registered urban planner. He is now the director of Development & Research Center, Shanghai Urban Planning and Research Institute. With years of experiences in urban and regional planning, he has finished dozens of strategic research projects and planning entrusted by state, provincial and municipal governments, as Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration Plan, Shanghai Master Plan, Shanghai land use plan, Shanghai Immediate Plan, After-implementation Planning Assessment, and regular annual reports. Many projects that he has been charged of or as participator, won excellent urban planning projects awards on national and municipal levels, and also Shanghai policy decision consulting study awards. Recent years, he has published more than thirty papers on top-class core periodicals.
Institution: Tongji University
Impacts of High-Speed Train Stations on Suburbanization: An Empirical Study of 22 Cities along Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Line Public investment in massive transportation infrastructure such as high-speed rail has functioned as an instrument to promote urbanization/suburbanization and economic development in China. High-speed train systems, according to the theoretical analyses and practical experiences of Japan, France and Germany, will improve regional accessibility, boost urban development, and increase floating capital and professionals in general. However, it is questionable whether specific cities with high-speed train stations would experience urban growth or shrinkage. Current researches concerning high-speed rail in China focus on urban relationships and accessibility at a regional level. This research instead explores the economic and social impact of high-speed train stations at two levels: the middle-level of cities and the micro-level of the surrounding areas around stations. It also focuses on the spatial transition and imbalance initiated by stations. For this study, 22 cities and towns along two high-speed train lines called Jing-Hu Line (from Beijing to Shanghai) is selected as cases, among which most of stations are located at urban peripheries or suburbs.
The empirical part of this research adopts a regression model to explore impact mechanism of high-speed train station on suburbanization at different geographic areas surrounding the stations. The distance between stations and downtown areas (negative) and public expenditure of local governments (positive) has significant correlation with the development of the surrounding area. It means that institutional barriers usually cause improper location selection and public investment of local government continues to play a significant role in suburbanization in China. Furthermore, plans for cities and the surrounding areas of stations are compared with the current reality in order to identify the function of planning in the process of spatial transformation. It reveals that plans for the stations and their surrounding areas usually exceed the capacity of cities. Through a thorough analysis of impact mechanism and adjustment tools of two cities - Wuxi and Changzhou, the research attempts to provide a basis for urban planning and policy making of transportation facility and its influencing area in order to achieve an intensive, efficient and sustainable suburban development.
Biography: Lan Wang, Ph. D, Associate Professor of Department of Urban Planning, Tongji University. She holds Bachelor and Master degrees in Urban Planning and Design from Tongji University. She attended University of Chicago at Illinois for her PhD in Urban Planning and Policy. She has been the Assistant Dean of College of Architecture and Urban Planning in Tongji University since Jul. 2014, and the Secretary General of National Steering Committee of China Urban and Rural Planning Education since 2010. She is both a Senior Urban Development Specialist for Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Urban Regeneration Consultant for World Bank, and also services as the Deputy Director of ADB-Tongji University Urban Knowledge Hub. Prof. Wang has conducted comparative studies of urban planning and development in global cities in different countries, including China, India, and United States etc. She secured funding from the National Nature Science Foundation for a study on the impact of high-speed train stations on the urbanization of surrounding areas and cities. Her current research interest includes urban regeneration, new town development and strategic planning in globalizing cities.
Institution: York University
Reaching New Heights: The Condominium Boom in Toronto Over fifteen years, Toronto has experienced a condominium boom, particularly in the form of highrise towers. What once was concentrated mainly to the downtown core is now mushrooming throughout the entire region. In my contribution I describe this phenomenon, analyze the underlying forces and critically discuss its social, cultural and political impacts. In particular, I will revisit an argument that was put forward in 2009, which linked the condo boom with increased socio-economic transformation, calling it “condofication” (Lehrer and Wieditz, 2009). It was argued then that growth policies, which were developed partially in response to protect green areas around the city, had unintended consequences. Since then, these processes have been described in greater detail and with a slightly different theoretical approximation as “condoism (Rosen and Walks, 2013; 2014). This paper will revisit the question in which way growth policies and condo development in the larger Toronto region are tight together.
Biography: Ute Lehrer is a Professor of Environmental Studies at York University and has published widely on architecture, urban design and planning. Her ongoing research interest is in cities and globalization, where she is concerned with image production in and through the built environment, as well as social and economic justice. Currently, she is conducting a research project, funded by the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada, on “Urban images, public space and the growth of private interests in Toronto”, where she studies the condominium boom, the extension of cultural facilities and the meaning of public space. Her earlier work includes the analysis of mega-projects, the relationship between urban form and economic restructuring as well as historic preservation. Her work is located in cities such as Berlin, Los Angeles, New York, Zurich, Frankfurt and Toronto. Among her most recent publications are: “Re-placing Canadian Cities: The Challenge of Landscapes of ‘Desire’ and ‘Despair’” In: T. Bunting and P. Filion (eds.) The Canadian City in Transition, 2006, 3rd edition, Oxford Press, 438-449; and “Willing the Global City: Berlin’s Cultural Strategies of Interurban Competition After 1989” In: N. Brenner and R. Keil (eds.), The Global City Reader, 2006, Routledge.
Institution: Fudan University
Paving the way for growth: rail transit development and suburbanization in Shanghai Similar to the massive construction of highways during the years of post-war suburbanization in many western countries, suburbanization in China is accompanied by extensive development of transportation infrastructure, in particular rail transit. Building on a case study of Shanghai, this paper unpacks the role of rail transit in facilitating suburbanization and examines how it is produced. Echoing McFarlane and Rutherford (2008)’s call for a “politicization of infrastructure”, it focuses on the political economy of suburban infrastructure, i.e. the power relations governing the development of rail transit. Broader infrastructure policies in Shanghai are first elaborated and then the development of No.9 Metro Line, which connects one outer suburban district Songjiang to the city centre, is investigated. It is revealed that, rather than an effective tool for curbing sprawl, the mass transit railway system is developed as a key catalyst for suburbanization. Meanwhile, in contrast to a centrally-dominant process as usually conceptualized in existing literature, suburban district governments and non-state organizations do play an active and crucial role in suburban infrastructure development. The traditional top-down state-led modality of suburban governance has evolved into a more horizontal and pluralist one.
Biography: Jie Shen is Assistant Professor of School of Social Development and Public Policy, Fudan University. She received her PhD in city and regional planning in the UK in 2012. Her research interests focus on China’s urban and regional development, especially suburbanization and suburban development, migration and urbanization, housing studies. She has published papers in Journal of Urban Affairs, Urban Geography and Environment and Planning A. She is also co-author of a chapter on China’s suburban development and governance in the book Suburban Governance: A Global View (University of Toronto Press).
Institution: University College London
Sequel to suburbia: glimpses of post-suburban America The outer suburbs were the ‘spatial fix’ that fuelled the domestic and international expansion of American capitalism in the second half of the twentieth century. They were thoroughly modern in their conception and planning and yet they have had unintended consequences. They pose problems in terms of the environmental sustainability of urbanisation in the United States given the energy consumption associated with them. They also may represent something of a barrier to further local and national economic development. As such, retrofitting of suburbia is considered the major challenge of this century in American society. It may also be a major challenge that other nations will eventually have to face – since the American suburban model is now being widely exported. This presentation charts some of the problems and prospects for a re-working of America’s suburban landscape. It focuses on three case studies: Kendall-Dadeland in the Miami metropolitan area which is a past experiment with new urbanism; Tysons Corner near Washington DC where it is hoped that that mass transit will help fashion a city from an edge city, and; Schaumburg near Chicago which was an outer suburb deliberately designed as a new kind of city. The cases reveal just a glimpse of a post-suburban America but also the formidable strength of suburban business as usual.
Biography: Nick Phelps is Chair and Professor of Urban and Regional Development at the Bartlett School of Planning at the University College London. Together with co-authors, he has made a number of important contributions within economic geography. These include articles in Regional Studies, Journal of Economic Geography, Economic Geography, Environment & Planning A and C, European Urban and regional studies, which address aspects of the economic geography of multinational enterprises and foreign direct investment and the political economy of foreign direct investment and investment promotion. His background is as an economic geographer with interests in the economic development implications and geographical organization of multinational companies. He has pursued some of these research interests in the Asia region – examining Singapore’s overseas industrial parks and issues surrounding the attraction of overseas investment in Southeast Asia.