Intergovernmental oceanographic commission (of unesco) information on eastern african sea level

Installation and maintenance of gauges

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4.1 Installation and maintenance of gauges
There is lack of personnel qualified in the field of Marine sciences, with particular incidence in Physical Oceanography. In the whole country, physical oceanographers are less than half a dozen, with only one PhD holder (Table 4-1). The Department of Oceanography of INAHINA, responsible for the tide gauge operation, tidal data analysis and thus, providing aid to navigation, has one MSc degree in Physical Oceanography, one BSc Holder in Meteorology and one technician with large experience in field work operations as well as in data processing.
There is no one in Mozambique who has attended training courses at PSMSL. However, staffs from INAHINA have attended several courses in tide gauge operation and tide data analysis in Portugal (Table below). A Members of staff of IIP and INAHINA have attended IOC sponsored regional courses in Oceanic Data Processing, which include tide data analysis.
Mozambique is independent since 1975. It used to be a Portuguese colonial. In spite of long time freedom the tide prediction are still be done in Portugal. The difficulty for producing it local may be both technical and financial. This situation, although apparently seems to be well justified it should be reversed, particularly if considering that there are tidal analysis packages available almost free of charge. Therefore, is an urgent need for building up confidence in the local staff, particularly at INAHINA, for at least to be able to make the tide predictions.

4.2 Analysis and interpretation of data
Tide data can be used for providing ocean services, in environmental and resources management, and in marine sciences. Hence, the use of tide data is of multi-institutional nature and multidisciplinary nature, such as: Academics, researchers and managers. INAHINA, IIP and the University Eduardo Mondlane are the traditional institutions that have been developing marine science activities.
INAHINA is mainly devoted to production of tide tables in the main harbours and so, they need capacity in tide data collection, data quality control and tidal analysis.
The IIP uses tide data as one of the inputs in the research for environmental impact in the fisheries research. IIP needs to monitor both the short and long term environmental trends, local and global climate changes such as El – ñino, tropical cyclones as they affect the marine and fish productivity. Hence, IIP needs to predict the tides not only in the main fishing bays but also in the offshore fishing grounds. The tide data are analysed, interpreted and related to other environmental parameters in an attempt to explain the variability in fish production. The Department of Aquatic Environmental Studies of IIP, responsible for Oceanography and limnology research applied for fisheries has one PhD holder in Physical Oceanography, one BSc holder in Meteorology, one BSc holder in Aquatic Resources Management and two technicians.

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