Interactions of hydrosphere and atmosphere



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VOCABULARY LIST – 8th GRADE

INTERACTIONS OF HYDROSPHERE AND ATMOSPHERE

Atmosphere

The layers of gases that surround Earth or another planet.

Barometer

An instrument that measures air pressure.

Climate

The average temperature and rainfall for a particular place over hundreds of years.

Condensation

Process in which matter changes from a gaseous state to a liquid state.

Conduction

The transfer of heat energy through a substance or from one substance to another by direct contact of atoms or molecules.

Convection

A method of transferring heat energy by the movement of the heated substance itself.

Convection current

A circular current in a fluid like air, water, or molten rock. The process occurs when the fluid is unevenly heated so that part of the fluid rises, cools, and then sinks producing the circular movement.

Density

The amount of material an object has in a specific amount of space.

Front

A boundary between air masses that have different temperatures and humidity. It is usually the site of unsettled weather conditions.

Gravity

The force of gravitational attraction on or near the surface of a celestial body.

Groundwater

Water that is in the porous parts of Earth's crust.

Heat Energy

The energy of a material due to the random motion of its particles. Also called thermal energy. The word "heat" is used when energy is transferred from one substance to another.

Hurricane

A large, powerful cyclonic storm that forms over a tropical ocean

Hydrosphere

Any part of the Earth or its atmosphere in which water or water vapor is found.

Moon

A natural satellite revolving around a planet.

Ocean current

A tidal or non-tidal continuous movement of ocean water in a certain direction.

Orbit

A path of one body in its revolution about another body.

Phases (lunar)

The regularly occurring cycle of changes in the appearance of the moon.

Precipitation

Process by which water falls to Earth from the atmosphere in the form of rain, snow, sleet, or hail.

Psychrometer

An instrument used to measure relative humidity.

Radiation

Energy traveling through empty space or through a transparent material without heating the empty space or transparent material.

Revolution

The movement of a celestial body in an orbit around another celestial body.

Rotation

The spinning motion of a planet or other object on its axis.

Seasons

Changes in temperature and the length of day and night over the course of a year.

Thunderstorm

A storm with heavy rainfall, lightning, and thunder produced by cumulonimbus clouds formed when a cold front collides with a warm front.

Tide

The alternate rising and falling of the surface of the ocean and of water bodies connected with the ocean. It occurs twice a day and is caused by the gravitational attraction of the moon and the sun occurring unequally on different parts of the Earth.

Tornado

A destructive, whirling, funnel-shaped cloud that has extremely low air pressure.

Water cycle

The process, involving evaporation and condensation, by which the Earth's water circulates through the environment.

Weather

The short-term conditions of the atmosphere determined by variables such as temperature, wind, moisture, and pressure.

*NOTE: The vocabulary pages are intended to inform teachers of the vocabulary related to the study of these indicators. This page should NOT be reprinted and distributed to students.

APPLIED CHEMISTRY VOCABULARY

WORD

DEFINITION

Acid

A substance that donates hydrogen ions. Any compound that produces hydrogen ions (H+) in water thereby reducing the pH of water to a value below 7.

Atom

The smallest part of a substance which can exist and still retain the properties of that substance.

Atomic Number

Number of protons in the nucleus of one atom of an element.


Base

A substance that accepts hydrogen ions. Any compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in water thereby raising the pH of water to a value above 7.


Boiling Point

The temperature at which a substance in its liquid state changes into a gas state.


Celsius

A temperature scale in which the freezing point of water is 0° and the boiling point of water is 100°.


Chemical change

A change that results in the formation of a new substance, such as the burning of wood.


Chemical energy

Energy stored in the chemical bonds of molecules.


Chemical properties

Properties which cause specific behavior of substances during chemical reactions, such as reacts with oxygen, reacts with acids, reacts with bases.


Chemical reaction

Change that takes place when two or more substances (reactants) interact to form new substances (products).


Chromatography

Process of separating small amounts of substances from mixtures by the rates at which they move through or along a medium.


Composition

The chemical make up of a given substance.


Compound

A substance in which the atoms of different elements are bonded to one another. It can be broken down into simpler parts only by a chemical change.


Condensation

Process in which matter changes from a gaseous state to a liquid state.


Crystal

A solid with a definite shape, formed from a repeating pattern of atoms.


Electron

The negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus of an atom.


Element

A substance that consists of only one kind of atom and cannot be broken down into simpler parts during a chemical reaction.


Evaporation

Change of matter from a liquid state to a gaseous state at a temperature below its boiling point.


Expand

When most substances are heated their molecules move faster and further apart causing them to increase.

Filtration

Process of separating a liquid and a solid by pouring the mixture through a fine mesh.


Gas

The state in which a substance has no definite shape or volume.


Indicator

A substance that changes color when it comes in contact with an acid or a base.


Kinetic energy

Energy of motion.


Law of Conservation of Mass

Mass can be neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction- only changed from one form to another.


Liquid

The state in which a substance flows and takes up the shape of its container.


Litmus paper

An indicator which shows whether a solution is acidic or basic (acids turn blue litmus paper red; bases turn red litmus paper blue).


Malleability

Ability of a substance to be molded into different shapes.


Mass

A measure of the amount of matter in an object.


Mass number

The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.


Matter

Anything that has volume and mass.


Mechanical energy

Energy an object has because of its motion or position.


Metals

Elements that usually have luster, conduct heat energy and electricity, and usually bend without breaking.


Mixture

A combination of two or more substances that have not combined chemically and that can be separated by physical means.


Molecule

The smallest unit of a substance that has all of the physical and chemical properties of the substance and that is composed of two or more atoms.


Neutral

A substance that does not have the properties of an acid or a base, but has an equal number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions. It has a pH of 7.


Neutral atom

An atom with an equal number of protons and electrons is electrically neutral.


Noble gases

Group of elements in the periodic table that generally do not react with other elements, such as neon and krypton.


Nonmetals

Elements that in general do not conduct electricity, are poor conductors of heat, and are brittle when solid.


Periodic table

A chart where all elements are organized into periods and groups according to their properties.


pH scale

Scale ranging from 0-14, used to describe how acidic (0) or basic (14) a substance is. The pH is the measure of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.


Physical change

A change that occurs in the physical property/properties of a substance without altering its composition.


Potential energy

The stored energy of a body because of its position.


Proton

Positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom.


Reactant

Compound or element that changes during a chemical reaction.


Reactivity

Ability of an element to gain or lose electrons which are used for bonding.


Solid

The state in which a substance has a definite volume and shape and resists forces which try to change these.


Solubility

Ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance.

Solution

Mixture in which the molecules of one substance (solute) are dissolved in another substance (solvent).


State of matter

The forms matter can take, as in liquid, solid, or gas.


Substance

Matter of a particular kind, or chemical makeup.


Temperature

The measure of the average energy of motion of the particles of a substance.


Volume

Amount of space an object or substance takes up; measured in liters or cubic centimeters.


Mechanics Vocabulary

WORD

DEFINITION

Acceleration

The change that occurs in an object's speed or direction in a certain period of time.

Formula: a = (speed2 – speed1)

time

Efficiency

This compares the output work of a machine with the input work.

Formula: Efficiency = Output Work x 100%

Input Work

Energy

The ability to cause matter to move or change.

Energy Transformation

When energy changes from one type to another.

Friction

The force that acts between materials that touch as they move past each other. Friction is caused by irregularities in the surface of objects that are touching.

Force

A push or a pull applied to an object.

Formula: F = ma, where m = mass and a = acceleration.

Gravity

The force of gravitational attraction on or near the surface of a celestial body.

Gravitational Force

The mutual force of attraction between particles of matter. The magnitude depends on the masses of the particle and the distance between them.

Inertia



The reluctance of any object to change its state of motion. Mass is the measure of inertia.

Kinetic Energy

Energy of motion.

Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed - only changed from one form to another.

Mass

A measure of the amount of matter in an object.

Matter

Anything that has volume and mass.

Motion

Change in position of an object relative to a reference point.

Potential Energy



The stored energy of a body because of its position,

Speed

A scalar quantity that describes the change in position in a certain period of time (how fast something is moving). (Compare with velocity.)

Velocity

The rate of motion, or speed, in a specified direction.

Formula: ∆d /∆t, where d = distance and t = time.

Weight

The measure of the gravitational force acting on an object.

Formula: W = mg, where m = mass and
g = force of gravity.


Work

The product of the force on an object and the distance through which the object is moved.

Formula: W = Fd, where F = force and d = the distance moved.

Biomass Energy

Brackish


Chesapeake Bay

Estuary


Fossil fuels

Geothermal Energy

Hydropower

Natural resources

Non-renewable

Organism


Renewable

Salinity


Solar Energy

Watershed



Wind Power


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