The layers of gases that surround Earth or another planet.
An instrument that measures air pressure.
The average temperature and rainfall for a particular place over hundreds of years.
Process in which matter changes from a gaseous state to a liquid state.
The transfer of heat energy through a substance or from one substance to another by direct contact of atoms or molecules.
A method of transferring heat energy by the movement of the heated substance itself.
A circular current in a fluid like air, water, or molten rock. The process occurs when the fluid is unevenly heated so that part of the fluid rises, cools, and then sinks producing the circular movement.
The amount of material an object has in a specific amount of space.
A boundary between air masses that have different temperatures and humidity. It is usually the site of unsettled weather conditions.
The force of gravitational attraction on or near the surface of a celestial body.
Water that is in the porous parts of Earth's crust.
The energy of a material due to the random motion of its particles. Also called thermal energy. The word "heat" is used when energy is transferred from one substance to another.
A large, powerful cyclonic storm that forms over a tropical ocean
Any part of the Earth or its atmosphere in which water or water vapor is found.
A natural satellite revolving around a planet.
A tidal or non-tidal continuous movement of ocean water in a certain direction.
A path of one body in its revolution about another body.
The regularly occurring cycle of changes in the appearance of the moon.
Process by which water falls to Earth from the atmosphere in the form of rain, snow, sleet, or hail.
An instrument used to measure relative humidity.
Energy traveling through empty space or through a transparent material without heating the empty space or transparent material.
The movement of a celestial body in an orbit around another celestial body.
The spinning motion of a planet or other object on its axis.
Changes in temperature and the length of day and night over the course of a year.
A storm with heavy rainfall, lightning, and thunder produced by cumulonimbus clouds formed when a cold front collides with a warm front.
The alternate rising and falling of the surface of the ocean and of water bodies connected with the ocean. It occurs twice a day and is caused by the gravitational attraction of the moon and the sun occurring unequally on different parts of the Earth.
A destructive, whirling, funnel-shaped cloud that has extremely low air pressure.
The process, involving evaporation and condensation, by which the Earth's water circulates through the environment.