Ingen hjelpemidler tillatt./ Ingen hjelpemiddel tillatne. OPPGAVEN/OPPGÅVA Answer both questions! 1. (40%) Explain the difference in form and meaning between the members of each of the following sentence pairs.
a 1 She must have been confused.
2 She mustn’t be confused.
b 1 Have they run into a problem?
2 Have they run into the woods?
c 1 More people tend to travel.
2 People tend to travel more.
d 1 Is there anything you would like to add?
2 Is this something you would like to add?
e 1 It’s not only the contract that we have to read very carefully.
2 It’s the contract, which we have to read very carefully.
2. (60 %) Read the following text and answer the questions below.
The life of the hugely influential psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, who is still controversial, was inextricably linked with Vienna. Born into a Jewish family in Freiberg, Moravia, on 6 May 1856, Freud was only four years old when his family moved to Vienna in 1860. After studying medicine at the University of Vienna, he went on to study under the brilliant neuropathologist Jean Martin Charcot in Paris. Charcot’s work on hysteria made a great impact on the young Freud, and on his return to Vienna in 1886 he began to treat nervous conditions in his own patients.
It has been pointed out that it may well have been only in the Vienna of the time that Freud would have found the intellectual milieu in which to develop his ideas. Freud himself, however, seems to have had a problematic relationship with the city. Although he spent much of his life there, he often hated the place.
His own work on hysteria, based on case studies undertaken with Josef Breuer (published in 1895), came to the conclusion that neurosis was caused by trauma. He soon moved beyond the theory when, from 1896, he began to develop his ground-breaking practice of psychoanalysis. It led to his formulation of the concepts of infantile sexuality and, famously, the Oedipus complex.
His reputation continued to grow and his work began to have profound influence beyond the sphere of neuroscience, particularly in music, painting and literature. However, this international reputation did not prevent persecution. With the arrival of the Nazis in Vienna in 1938, Freud and his family, as (albeit atheist) Jews, were forced to flee to England. He died in London on 23 September 1939.
Questions: Comment on the two uses of it at line 9 and the one use at line 16.
Comment on the underlined non-finite clauses at lines 3-4, 5 and 10. In each case you should say what kind of non-finite clause it is (infinitive, -ing or past participle) and what syntactic function the clause has in the superordinate clause. You should also consider what finite alternatives might be available in these contexts, and suggest why non-finite clauses were preferred by the writer.
Comment on the functions of the adverbs hugely (line 2), still (line 2), however (line 11) and famously (line 16). In each case you should say whether the adverb is a modifier or an adverbial. If the latter, you should also decide which of the three major types of adverbials it belongs to.
Comment on the use of the passive verb phrases was caused (line 14) and were forced (line 21). In your comment you should take care to distinguish between the long and the short passive. What do you think motivated the use of the passive in each case?
Give a complete syntactic analysis of the underlined sentence at lines 11-12.
Comment on the use of the zero determiner with the three underlined nouns at line 19. Why is the definite article unlikely to be used here?