Inspiration 2 Tim. 3:14-17 All scripture is given by inspiration of God... The Point:Scripture is the answer The context:
2 Tim. 1:13 Hold fast the form of sound words,
2 Tim. 1:14 That good thing which was committed unto thee keep by the Holy Ghost
2 Tim. 2:2 the things thou hast heard, the same commit thou to faithful men
2 Tim. 2:14 Of these things put them in remembrance
2 Tim. 2:15 Study to shew thyself approved, rightly dividing the word of truth.
2 Tim. 3:1 In the last days perilous times shall come
2 Tim. 3:7 Ever learning, never able to come to the knowledge of the truth
2 Tim. 3:13 Evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse
2 Tim. 3:14 But continue thou in the things thou hast learned
2 Tim. 3:15 From a child hast known the holy scriptures
2 Tim. 4:2 Preach the word
2 Tim. 4:3 time will come not endure sound doctrine, heap to selves teachers
2 Tim. 4:4 shall turn away their ears from the truth Two apostasies prophesied:
Acts 20:29 after my departing shall grievous wolves enter in among you
Acts 20:30 to draw disciples after them
Acts 20:32 I commend you to God, and to the word of his grace
2 Pe. 3:2 be mindful of the words spoken by holy prophets and us the apostles
2 Pe. 3:3 there shall come in the last days scoffers
2 Pe. 3:4 all things continue as they were from the beginning
2 Pe. 3:5 willingly are ignorant
2 Pe. 3:6 world that then was, being overflowed with water Scripture is solution to apostasy
Permanence: Exo. 17:14 memorial
Job 19:23,24 for ever
Isa. 30.8 time to come
Ps. 102:18 future
Authority: Exo. 34:27 these words made a covenant (official, commitment)
Confirmation: John 12:16 remembered they these things were written of him
Precision: Eze. 43:10,11 write it that they may keep the whole form
Convenience: Rom. 15:4 written for our learning, patience, comfort, hope,
Deu. 17:18,19 write him a copy of this law in a book, read all days of life
Hab. 2:1,2 plain upon tables, run that readeth it.
Confidence: John. 20:31 written that ye might believe
Promulgation: Rom. 16:26 by scriptures made known to all nations Purpose: furnish man of God after Apostles were gone.
Scriptures take the place of ongoing, prophetical revelation. Continual doctrinal and practical authority. The Principle: Inspiration is about the commonly available Bible Popular attempts at defining inspiration do not match reality. (By definition, only believers are attempting the definition, so they aren’t inherently bad attempts. They are “good tries,” but they don’t work comprehensively.) 1. God breathed. That God directly communicated using men as mere instruments
Are the scriptures God-breathed? (NIV actually translates it this way).
Physically? Obviously not. It is literature. It is called “scripture.”
Metaphorically, then? God’s words on paper? Not a definition at all, tells us nothing.
Spiritually? Spoken by God in spirit? So leave it as “by inspiration”
“the Law and the Prophets are not a doctrine delivered according to the will and pleasure of men, but dictated by the Holy Spirit.” (John Calvin)
“God directed the men who wrote it what to write, and how to write it, that as a rule of faith and practice for men it might be perfect” (Family Bible Commentary)
“The scriptures are the breath of God, the word of God and not men; they are ‘written by the Spirit’, as the Syriac version renders it; or ‘by the Spirit of God’, as the Ethiopic version.” (John Gill)
“An extraordinary divine agency upon teachers while giving instruction, whether oral or written, by which they were taught how and what they should speak or write.” (Knapp)
Some scriptures were actually spoken by God, but not all:
Num. 12:6 I will make myself known in a vision, speak in a dream
Num. 12:8 [but] with [Moses] will I speak mouth to mouth
Heb. 1:1 God who in divers manners spake in time past, hath in last days spoken by his son.
If all is directly from God, why does God make a difference? 2. Special Revelation. That God “moved upon men” giving them supernatural understanding. 1 Pet. 1:11 the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ,
2 Pet. 1:20,21 Prophecy came not by will of man, but men spake moved by Holy Ghost.
Job 32:8 the inspiration of the Almighty giveth them understanding.
2 Sam. 23:2 The Spirit of the LORD spake by me, and his word was in my tongue.
Luke 1:70 As he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets, since the world began:
Mark 12:36 For David himself said by the Holy Ghost,
Heb. 3:7 Wherefore (as the Holy Ghost saith, To day if ye will hear his voice,
“Scriptures of the prophets who were taught according to the inspiration of God” (Josephus)
“sacred writers were kept from error on those subjects which were matters of their own observation, or which pertained to memory; and that there were truths imparted to them directly by the Spirit of God, which they never could have arrived at by the unaided exercise of their own minds.” (Albert Barnes)
“They are not the contrivance of any man’s wit and fancy, but a revelation of the mind and will of God; and those that wrote them were excited to it, and assisted in it, by the Spirit of God.” (Burkitt)
“When God speaks of divine things, and this is revelation, he does for our sakes condescend to use human language, but fills it with what is divine.” (Darby) Some scriptures, notably prophecies, were given by special revelation, but not all:
John 15:26,27 Comforter will testify of me: and ye also shall bear witness
Notice the Holy Spirit gives a separate testimony from the Apostles. It is imperative that the “eyewitness” testimony of the apostles not be something “revealed” by God’s spirit, but something that comes from their own experience, that they remember themselves, and that they relate in their own words. Otherwise, it is not eyewitness testimony at all.
Luke 1:1-4 perfect understanding from the first, from eyewitnesses
Luke 24:48 ye are witnesses
Acts 1:21,22 of these which have companied with us, must one be ordained a witness
Acts 4:20 we speak the things which we have seen and heard
John. 14:26 Spirit bring all things to your remembrance
Inspiration of all scripture does not mean supernatural revelation of all scripture, because the role of the Holy Spirit in the testimony of the Apostles is declared to be only the enabling of their own memory.
3. Holy men authorized: That God commissioned men with authority and signs to confirm it, and the scriptures connected to these men are in this way “inspired,” that is, endowed with God’s authority. Deu. 18:22 prophet speaketh, thing follow not, thing the Lord hath not spoken
Jer. 28:9 when word shall come to pass, then prophet known, Lord hath sent him
2 Pet. 1:21 holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.
Mark 16:20 confirming the word with signs following.
1 Cor. 14:37 let him acknowledge that things I write are the commandments of the Lord
2 Cor. 12:12 Truly the signs of an apostle were wrought among you
1 Cor. 2:16 we have the mind of Christ.
1 Cor. 7:6 But I speak this by permission, and not of commandment.
1 Cor. 7:12 to the rest speak I, not the Lord
1 Cor. 7:25 I have no commandment of the Lord, I give my judgment
1 Cor. 7:40 after my judgment: and I think also that I have the Spirit of God
“sacred writers were kept from error on those subjects which were matters of their own observation, or which pertained to memory;” (Albert Barnes)
“God hath spoken to us, and [we] are fully convinced that the prophets did not speak at their own suggestion, but that, being organs of the Holy Spirit, they only uttered what they had been commisioned from heaven to declare.” (John Calvin)
“but holy men of God; such as he sanctified by his Spirit, and separated from the rest of men to such peculiar service; and whom he employed as public ministers of his word:” (John Gill) Much scripture is connected to “holy men” clearly authorized by God to speak for him, such as Moses, Prophets, David, Solomon, and almost the entire NT, but much is also not connected to any holy man, or no man confirmed by any signs. Viz. Judges through Chronicles and Esther. Furthermore, it is expressly stated that “holy men” are not to be trusted against “scripture.” Deu. 13:1-3 arise a prophet, sign come to pass, shall not hearken
Gal. 1:8,9 though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other than that ye have received, accursed 4. Original Autographs. That God miraculously protected certain original documents from any sort of error, notwithstanding them being written by humans capable of error. A miracle in the composition only.
“Inspiration is here predicated of the writings, ‘all Scripture,’ not of the persons. The question is not how God has done it; it is as to the word, no the men who wrote it. What we must believe is that He has done it, and that all the sacred writings are every where inspired, though not all alike matter of special revelation: and that even the very words are stamped with divine sanction, as Jesus used them for deciding all questions of doctrine and practice...Verbal inspiration does not mean mechanical dictation, but all "Scripture is (so) inspired by God," that everything in it, its narratives, prophecies, citations, the whole--ideas, phrases, and words--are such as He saw fit to be there. The present condition of the text is no ground for concluding against the original text being inspired, but is a reason why we should use all critical diligence to restore the inspired text.” (Tregelles)
“The theory ... maintains that the entire corpus of Scripture consists of writings every word of which (presumably in the original autographs, forever inaccessible to us) was directly ‘dictated’ by the Deity...They consequently convey absolute truth with no trace of error or relativity. That I believe to be a false method.” (C. H. Dodd) It isn’t impossible that some original documents were supernaturally protected from error, but several problems with the theory exist: 1. All original documents are lost. Highly antithetical to the point of our text – continuance – that the scriptures remain after apostles are gone. How can a departing authority be replaced by a “long gone” authority? 2. “Original” cannot be defined:
Much scripture was originally oral, never existed as an original document (Genesis, Gospels).
Much scripture was compiled using sources (Genesis, Chronicles)
Some logically were authored for publication, making multiple original documents
(Psalms, Gospels, general epistles written originally for wide publication)
1 Cor. 16:24 written from Philippi by Stephanas and Fortunatus and Achaicus and Timotheus.
2 Cor. 13:14 written from Philippi, a city of Macedonia, by Titus and Lucas.
1 Pet. 1:1 to the strangers throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,
Rev. 1:4 John to the seven churches which are in Asia
Some were incorporated into later documents with changes
Exo. 24:4,8 Moses wrote all the words of the Lord, took the book, and read
Exo. 20:2-21 I am the Lord thy God – wife ... house
Deu. 5:6-17 I am the Lord thy God – house ... wife
Translation of the text into common languages – common understanding, plain sense, literal when possible
not innovation in translation techniques – dynamic equivalence, not looking for "new things"
not flexibility in interpretation
Written in Hebrew, also Aramaic (Daniel, Ezekiel, some parts of Ezra and Chronicles), also Greek,
and phrases originally in Latin as well (Luke 23:38, John 19:20),
Acts 2:5-11 Every nation under heaven, hear every man in our own tongue Received text principles:
Acts 15:21 Moses of old time ... in every city ... read in the synagogues every sabbath day
Written, old, continuous, common, available, Historical standard: the continuously available complete canon, full text, and most usual text:
"vulgates" in both Greek and Latin, standard readings supplied from both Greek and Latin,
(Beza's rejection of C because of its unusual readings)
What, then, do those babblers, but betray their snarling petulance in falsely alleging the spuriousness of books whose sacred antiquity is proved by the consent of all history? (Calvin's Institutes)
We never go from that text and ancient reading, which all the fathers used and expounded; but we translate that most usual text, which was first printed out of the most ancient copies that could be found; (Fulke's defence)
But as for the Hebrew and Greek that now is, [it] may easily be proved to be the same that always hath been; neither is there any diversity in sentence, howsoever some copies, either through negligence of the writer, or by any other occasion, do vary from that which is commonly and most generally received in some letters, syllables, or words. (Fulke's defence)
"The Old Testament in Hebrew (which was the native language of the people of God of old), and the New Testament in Greek (which at the time of the writing of it was most generally known to the nations), being immediately inspired by God, and by his singular care and providence kept pure in all ages, are therefore authentical; so as in all controversies of religion the Church is finally to appeal unto them." (Westminster)
Canon II: But, in particular, The Hebrew original of the OT which we have received and to this day do retain as handed down by the Hebrew Church, "who had been given the oracles of God" (Rom 3:2), is, not only in its consonants, but in its vowels either the vowel points themselves, or at least the power of the points not only in its matter, but in its words, inspired by God. It thus forms, together with the Original of the NT the sole and complete rule of our faith and practice; and to its standard, as to a Lydian stone, all extant versions, eastern or western, ought to be applied, and wherever they differ, be conformed. (Forumula Consensus Helvetica 1675 ) Consensus: Mutual agreement, the received text
Add, moreover, that, for the best of reasons, the consent of the church is not without its weight. For it is not to be accounted of no consequence, that, from the first publication of Scripture, so many ages have uniformly concurred in yielding obedience to it, (Calvin's Institutes)
Nay, its divine origin is more completely established by the fact, that when all human wishes were against it, it advanced by its own energy. Add that it was not a single city or a single nation that concurred in receiving and embracing it. Its authority was recognized as far and as wide as the world extends--various nations who had nothing else in common entering for this purpose into a holy league. Moreover, while we ought to attach the greatest weight to the agreement of minds so diversified, and in all other things so much at variance with each other--an agreement which a Divine Providence alone could have produced--it adds no small weight to the whole when we attend to the piety of those who thus agree; (Calvin's Institutes)
By the received text of Shakspere we do not mean the particular text which has obtained in particular editions such as Boswell's of l82l but the text which if a new edition of Shakspere is set about for general circulation is generally adopted for the most part without any attempt whatever towards revision (C. Knight's Library Edition of Shakspere). What scriptures? The received text, the commonly accepted, recognized, acknowledged scripture.
How do we recognized it? It is the one already recognized!
commonness, availability, continuity, fruitfulness, dependence, and consensus, ,