Innovations in art, music, and literature



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AP EURO: LECTURE OUTLINE pp. 476-481

INNOVATIONS IN ART, MUSIC, AND LITERATURE:
Baroque and Neoclassical - the art styles of the 17th century
Rococo -

1. New style of art that began in the 1730’s

2. Grace and gentle action

3. Rejected strict geometrical patterns - favored curves

4. Delicacy, lightness, charm

5. Secular - expressed pleasure, happiness, and love


Antoine Watteau -

1. One of the greatest Rococo painters

2. Depictions of aristocratic life

3. Fat ladies in frilly dresses, ribbons and bonnets, hanging out in flowery gardens

4. Pleasure and joy
Rococo in architecture served as decorative details and ornamentation of Baroque structures
Neoclassicism continued from the 17th century into the 18th century -

1. The dignity and simplicity of the classical style of ancient Greece and Rome

2. Influenced by the excavations of Herculaneum and Pompeii

3. Jacques-Louis David = The Oath of the Horatii



THE DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC:
The 17th and 18th century were the formative years for classical music = Baroque music 1600-1750
New compositional forms in music -

1. Opera


2. The Oratorio

3. The Sonata

4. The Concerto

5. The Symphony


New musical genres genres began in Italy - then spread Germany, Austria, and England
Musicians depended on patrons - princes, bishops, aristocrats

JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH:
Bach -

1. Greatest of the baroque composers

2. German

3. Came from a large family of musician - produced his own large family of musicians

4. Worked as an organist, court music director, choir master/kapellmeister

5. Majority of his work was church music

Significant Bach compositions -

Brandenburg Concertos

Toccata and Fugue

Mass in B Minor

Goldberg Variations

Christmas Oratorio

Jesu, joy of man’s desiring
GEORGE FREDERICK HANDEL:
Handel -

1. German baroque who lived and worked most of his life in England

2. Primarily secular

3. Ran an opera company /rec’d patronage from the English royal court

4. Significant compositions - Music for the Royal Fireworks

Water Music

Messiah

THE CLASSICAL ERA IN MUSIC:
The classical era 1750-1830 = period which followed the baroque era
Orchestral music - begins to dominate in the second half of the 18th century
Appearance of new musical instruments - bigger and more diverse sounds

The piano


Larger and larger arrangements of musicians - Orchestras playing symphonies

FRANZ JOSEPH HAYDN:
Haydn -

1. Austrian classical composer

2. Worked for Prince Esterhazy in Hungary

3. Composed 104 symphonies

4. Significant compositions - The Surprise Symphony, The Philosopher Symphony, The Farewell Symphony

WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART:
Mozart -

1. Austrian classical composer

2. Genius and child prodigy - first concert at age six, composed first opera at twelve

3. Wrote 41 symphonies - #35 The Haffner, #41 The Jupiter

4. Wrote many concertos - the Clarinet Concerto

5. Operas - Don Giovanni, The Marriage of Figaro, The Magic Flute

6. Died miserable and penniless at the age of 35
*watch the film on Mozart’s life - Amadeus

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOVEL:
The 18th century marked the full development of the novel as a literary genre
English writers are considered to be the ones who establish the centrality of the novel
Samuel Richardson - Pamela = story of a good girl
Henry Fielding - Tom Jones = story of a bad boy

THE WRITING OF HISTORY:
The enlightenment transformed the study and writing of history -

1. Remove god from historical study

2. Secular explanations and causation

3. New social science approach

4. Broadened the scope of historical study - economic, social, intellectual, cultural
Edward Gibbon -

1. British writer

2. One of the first of the modern historians

3. Wrote a six volume work Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire





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