Innovation – the introduction of something new (e g., idea, method or device) Transportation



Download 28.45 Kb.
Date14.05.2016
Size28.45 Kb.
Unit 9 Out Line


  • Innovation – the introduction of something new (e.g., idea, method or device)

  • Transportation – means of conveyance or travel from one place to another

  • Communication – an act or instance of transmitting a verbal or written message

  • Region – a geographic area distinguished by similar features

  • Industrialization – the overall change in circumstances accompanying a society’s movement of population and resources from farm production to manufacturing production and associated services

  • Urbanization – the process by which towns and cities are formed and become larger as more people begin living and working in central areas

Identify


MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

  • Industrialization

    • Factory System

    • Population shift to cities

    • Inventions

    • Expansion of Slavery

    • Slave Rebellions

    • Reform Movements

    • Immigration

Describe


POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN MODIFICATION OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE UNITED STATES

Modification

Positive

Negative

Railroads

Increased communication and trade between the East and the West

Air pollution, destruction of natural environment

Urbanization

More jobs were available in cities

pollution

Identify

economic differences among different regions of the United States



  • Industrialization

    • North – manufacturing and industry

    • South – agriculture (supplied North with raw materials)

Explain


reasons for the development of the plantation system, the transatlantic slave trade, and the spread of slavery

Industrialization

  • The invention of the cotton gin made the cotton-cleaning process more efficient and quicker thus the need arose for a larger work force (drastic rise in the number of slaves in the South)

Explain

Reasons for the increase in factories and urbanization

  • Increase In Factories – Industrial Revolution

    • Result of major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation and technology

    • Steam-power capabilities increased production

    • WAR OF 1812 – Manufacturing Capability increased (the British blockade of the American coast created a shortage of cotton cloth (previously American cotton was shipped to Britain where it was turned into cloth, then sent back to America) in the United States, leading to the creation of a cotton-manufacturing industry, numerous manufacturing establishments were founded (particularly in the Northern region)- left the United States industrially independent of Europe)

  • Increase In Urbanization

    •  Industrialization had produced substantial growth in cities, and 35 percent of   Americans lived in urban areas, mostly in the northern half of the United States

    • The increased number of jobs, along with technological innovations in transportation and housing construction, encouraged migration to cities. 

Analyze

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC DIFFERENCES AMONG DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES

  • Industrialization

    • North

      • Cause – industrialization led to new jobs in cities

      • Effect – urbanization and growth of cities

    • South

      • Cause – warm climate and fertile soil

      • Effect  – plantation system; slave system sustained cash crop economy

WAR OF 1812 AS A CAUSE OF ECONOMIC CHANGES IN THE NATION

  • As a result of the interruption of trade during the War of 1812, Americans had to rely on U.S. manufactured goods in place of those they had previously imported. U.S. manufacturing grew

Identify

ECONOMIC FACTORS THAT BROUGHT ABOUT RAPID INDUSTRIALIZATION AND URBANIZATION

  • Plentiful natural resources

  • Improved transportation

  • Growing population

  • New inventions

  • Investment capital

Explain

free enterprise system of economics developed in the new nation

  • Free enterprise was preferable to the former mercantilist system the colonies were under

  • Americans’ focus on their rights included the right to choose trade partners, prices and products

CHARACTERISTICS AND THE BENEFITS OF THE U.S. FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM DURING THE 18th AND 19th CENTURIES

Characteristics



  • Four questions governing economic activity

    • What to produce?

    • How to produce it?

    • How many to produce?

    • For whom to produce?

  • Four components of free enterprise and economic freedom

    • Private property

    • Voluntary exchange

    • Profit motive

    • Supply and demand

  • Laissez-faire – the belief that the government should not interfere in the economy other than to protect private property rights and to maintain peace

  • Entrepreneurship – people who risk their capital in organizing and running a business

  • The U.S. Constitution guaranteed economic rights of freedom to own, compete, and select an occupation

Benefits

  • Specialization

  • Foreign investment saw opportunity for profit and growth

  • U.S. Constitution could protect the rights of workers and owners

  • A diverse economy that met the needs of the United States when it was needed

  • Less dependent on foreign markets

  • Industrial Revolutions in the 19th Century

Explain

relationship between urbanization and conflicts resulting from differences in religion, social class, and political beliefs

  • Poverty and Non-English Speaker (immigrants)

  • Discrimination towards immigrants, women and children

  • Anti-immigration sentiment because immigrants were willing to work for lower wages

  • Know-Nothing Party (strict immigration policies)

  • Overcrowded apartment buildings

  • Crime

  • Disease

  • Fires

Explain

effects of technological and scientific innovations

Including, but not limited to:



  • Steamboat – Increased factory production and led to the growth of cities like New Orleans and St. Louis because it could move goods and people faster up and down rivers.

  • The cotton gin – Made the cotton-cleaning process more efficient. It enabled cotton farmers to move farther west to grow cotton, grow more cotton, drive Native Americans off their land, and create a larger work force (drastic rise in the number of slaves in the South).

  • Interchangeable parts – parts for devices were made to be nearly identical so that they could fit into any device of the same type, this allows easy assembly of new devices and efficient  repair of existing devices, (e.g., guns – before the 18th century they were made by gunsmiths and each gun was unique, if a single component needed a replacement the entire weapon had to be sent back to the gunsmith for custom repairs, interchangeable parts drastically increased productivity and efficiency of production and repair)

  • Bessemer steel process – the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel. It decreased the cost which allowed increase in steel production and work force.

  • Mechanical Reaper – increased farm productivity

Analyze

impact of transportation and communication systems on the growth, development, and urbanization of the United States

  • Transportation allows people and goods to move to urban areas in large numbers where there are markets, business opportunities, and jobs.

    • Transportation

      • Steamboats – prior to the invention of the steamboat, river travel depended on river currents, wind and manpower; steam-powered boats changed river travel and transportation of goods because of the increased efficiency of travel/transport of goods.

      • Canals – man-made waterways used for travel and/or shipping (The Erie Canal (1825) proved to be the key that unlocked an enormous series of social and economic changes in the young nation. The Canal spurred the first great westward movement of American settlers, gave access to the rich land and resources west of the Appalachians and helped make New York the preeminent commercial city in the United States).

      • Railroads – the invention of the steam engine led to modern railroads and trains; railroad construction boomed in the mid-19th century; by the 1890s, the United States was becoming an urban nation, and railroads supplied cities and towns with food, fuel, building materials, and access to markets; the Transcontinental Railroad (completed in 1869) created a nation-wide transportation network that united the Nation; railroads allowed for the transportation of larger quantities of goods over longer distances.

  • Communication

    • Telegraph – transmitted electric signals over wires from location to a location that translated it into a message; many telegraph lines followed railroads; enhanced communication abilities, particularly after 1860 (during the increased settlement of the west)

    • Analyze

TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS CHANGED THE WAY GOODS WERE MANUFACTURED AND MARKETED, NATIONALLY AND INTERNATIONALLY

  • Ways goods were manufactured – faster, in large number, and standardized

  • Marketed – transportation and communication improved, which allowed goods to move faster and over farther distances

Explain

TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS BROUGHT ABOUT ECONOMIC GROWTH

  • Factory system

    • Products could be produced faster and cheaper

    • Hire low-waged workers

  • Transcontinental Railroad

    • Connected the Eastern coast with the Western Coast (California); previously investors saw the West as worthless sage brush, insurmountable mountains and a few scattered settlers, now it was open to economic expansion and settlement; immigrants used the railroad to migrate west and to form new immigrant settlements in western states and territories

Compare

EFFECTS OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS THAT HAVE

Encouraged the hiring of low-skilled workers and expanded slavery

Identify

examples of how industrialization changed life in the United States

  • Faster process and allows slavery to expand

    • Cyrus McCormack's reaper (1834) – cut ripe grain faster

    • Cotton Gin – cotton cleaning process more efficient



Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2020
send message

    Main page