economic differences among different regions of the United States
North – manufacturing and industry
South – agriculture (supplied North with raw materials)
reasons for the development of the plantation system, the transatlantic slave trade, and the spread of slavery
The invention of the cotton gin made the cotton-cleaning process more efficient and quicker thus the need arose for a larger work force (drastic rise in the number of slaves in the South)
Reasons for the increase in factories and urbanization
Increase In Factories – Industrial Revolution
Result of major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation and technology
Steam-power capabilities increased production
WAR OF 1812 – Manufacturing Capability increased (the British blockade of the American coast created a shortage of cotton cloth (previously American cotton was shipped to Britain where it was turned into cloth, then sent back to America) in the United States, leading to the creation of a cotton-manufacturing industry, numerous manufacturing establishments were founded (particularly in the Northern region)- left the United States industrially independent of Europe)
Increase In Urbanization
Industrialization had produced substantial growth in cities, and 35 percent of Americans lived in urban areas, mostly in the northern half of the United States
The increased number of jobs, along with technological innovations in transportation and housing construction, encouraged migration to cities.
CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC DIFFERENCES AMONG DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES
Cause – industrialization led to new jobs in cities
U.S. Constitution could protect the rights of workers and owners
A diverse economy that met the needs of the United States when it was needed
Less dependent on foreign markets
Industrial Revolutions in the 19th Century
relationship between urbanization and conflicts resulting from differences in religion, social class, and political beliefs
Poverty and Non-English Speaker (immigrants)
Discrimination towards immigrants, women and children
Anti-immigration sentiment because immigrants were willing to work for lower wages
Know-Nothing Party (strict immigration policies)
Overcrowded apartment buildings
effects of technological and scientific innovations
Including, but not limited to:
Steamboat – Increased factory production and led to the growth of cities like New Orleans and St. Louis because it could move goods and people faster up and down rivers.
The cotton gin – Made the cotton-cleaning process more efficient. It enabled cotton farmers to move farther west to grow cotton, grow more cotton, drive Native Americans off their land, and create a larger work force (drastic rise in the number of slaves in the South).
Interchangeable parts – parts for devices were made to be nearly identical so that they could fit into any device of the same type, this allows easy assembly of new devices and efficient repair of existing devices, (e.g., guns – before the 18th century they were made by gunsmiths and each gun was unique, if a single component needed a replacement the entire weapon had to be sent back to the gunsmith for custom repairs, interchangeable parts drastically increased productivity and efficiency of production and repair)
Bessemer steel process – the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel. It decreased the cost which allowed increase in steel production and work force.
Mechanical Reaper – increased farm productivity
impact of transportation and communication systems on the growth, development, and urbanization of the United States
Transportation allows people and goods to move to urban areas in large numbers where there are markets, business opportunities, and jobs.
Steamboats – prior to the invention of the steamboat, river travel depended on river currents, wind and manpower; steam-powered boats changed river travel and transportation of goods because of the increased efficiency of travel/transport of goods.
Canals – man-made waterways used for travel and/or shipping (The Erie Canal (1825) proved to be the key that unlocked an enormous series of social and economic changes in the young nation. The Canal spurred the first great westward movement of American settlers, gave access to the rich land and resources west of the Appalachians and helped make New York the preeminent commercial city in the United States).
Railroads – the invention of the steam engine led to modern railroads and trains; railroad construction boomed in the mid-19th century; by the 1890s, the United States was becoming an urban nation, and railroads supplied cities and towns with food, fuel, building materials, and access to markets; the Transcontinental Railroad (completed in 1869) created a nation-wide transportation network that united the Nation; railroads allowed for the transportation of larger quantities of goods over longer distances.
Telegraph – transmitted electric signals over wires from location to a location that translated it into a message; many telegraph lines followed railroads; enhanced communication abilities, particularly after 1860 (during the increased settlement of the west)
Ways goods were manufactured – faster, in large number, and standardized
Marketed – transportation and communication improved, which allowed goods to move faster and over farther distances
TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS BROUGHT ABOUT ECONOMIC GROWTH
Products could be produced faster and cheaper
Hire low-waged workers
Connected the Eastern coast with the Western Coast (California); previously investors saw the West as worthless sage brush, insurmountable mountains and a few scattered settlers, now it was open to economic expansion and settlement; immigrants used the railroad to migrate west and to form new immigrant settlements in western states and territories
EFFECTS OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS THAT HAVE
Encouraged the hiring of low-skilled workers and expanded slavery
examples of how industrialization changed life in the United States
Faster process and allows slavery to expand
Cyrus McCormack's reaper (1834) – cut ripe grain faster
Cotton Gin – cotton cleaning process more efficient