Industrialization and urbanization

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Factors Leading to Change (1)

As the Industrial Revolution spread to the United States, plants such as the textile factory appeared. From 1870 to 1900 the United States became the world’s foremost industrial nation. Industrial growth was fueled by abundant resources, cheap labor, and technological advances.

From 1870 to 1900 the United States became the world’s foremost industrial nation. It emerged as the leader in meatpacking, in production of timber and steel, and in the mining of coal, iron, gold, and silver. Overall, the nation experienced a stunning explosion in the scale of industry and in the pace of production. By the turn of the century, industrialization had transformed commerce, business organization, the environment, the workplace, the home, and everyday life.

Many factors fueled industrial growth in the late 19th century: abundant resources, new technology, cheap energy, fast transport, and the availability of capital and labor. Mines, forests, and livestock in the west provided raw materials for major industries, as did iron in Ohio and oil in Pennsylvania. Railroad expansion enabled businesses to move raw materials to factories and to send products to urban markets. A steady stream of immigrants arrived to work in America’s mines and factories.

Technological advances transformed production. The new machine-tool industry, which turned out drilling, cutting, and milling machines, sped up manufacturing. A trail of inventions, including the telephone, typewriter, linotype, phonograph, electric light, cash register, air brake, refrigerator car, and automobile, led to new industries. Finally, business leaders learned how to operate and coordinate many different economic activities across broad geographic areas. Businesses were thus able to become larger, and the modern corporation became an important form of business organization.

Corporations and Consolidation

Andrew Carnegie made millions of dollars as a pioneer in the American steel industry. By 1899 Carnegie’s company was the world’s biggest industrial corporation and produced one-fourth of the nation’s steel.

In the 19th century, states reduced the requirements for businesses to incorporate. A corporation is a form of business partnership; it is a legal entity that is distinct from the individuals who control it. The corporation (not the individual partners) is responsible for repaying the corporation’s debts; this is known as limited liability. The corporate form of business organization made it possible for entrepreneurs to finance large-scale enterprises because corporations issue stock, certificates representing shares of ownership in a corporation. By issuing stock, a corporation can enable thousands of individuals to pool financial resources and invest in a new venture.

Businesses also grew by combining into trusts. In a trust, a small group of business people, called trustees, acquire enough shares in several competing firms to control those companies. The trustees are then able to manage and direct a group of companies in a unified way—in effect, creating a single firm out of competing firms. The trustees could prevent competition among the firms that were part of the trust. A leading example was the Standard Oil Trust, formed in Ohio in 1882 by John D. Rockefeller and his associates. Within a decade, trusts dominated many industries.

States tried to regulate trusts, but big businesses eluded state control. Afraid that trusts would destroy competition, Congress in 1890 passed the Sherman Antitrust Act. The act banned businesses from joining together in ways that controlled markets, as trusts had been doing. It also outlawed monopoly, in which only a single seller or producer supplies a commodity or a service. But the law defined neither trust nor monopoly and was poorly enforced. The courts threw out cases against the trusts and used the law mainly to declare unions illegal combinations in restraint of trade. For instance, the courts declared that unions that organized boycotts or strikes impeded the flow of commerce and thus violated federal law. Standard Oil, however, continued without interference. In 1892, to avoid Ohio laws, Standard Oil incorporated in New Jersey as a holding company, a corporation with only one purpose: to buy out the stock of other companies.

Corporations introduced new styles of management, or business organization. The railroads, which needed to manage crews, fuel, repairs, and train schedules over large areas, were the first to develop new management techniques. The railroads also developed standard time, which the United States adopted in 1883. Steel industry tycoon Andrew Carnegie, who continually sought less costly ways to make steel, also introduced new management techniques. The Carnegie Steel Company used precise accounting systems to track the costs of all processes and materials involved in making steel. To do this work, Carnegie hired middle managers and encouraged them to compete with one another.

New business practices led to larger corporations. Andrew Carnegie practiced vertical integration; he bought companies that sold supplies to the steel industry, including coal and iron mines and a railroad line. Carnegie thereby controlled every stage of the productive process from raw materials to marketing. Finally, he engaged in horizontal consolidation by acquiring his competitors. He priced his products so low that competitors could not compete and make a profit. Then he bought them out. By 1899 Carnegie’s company was the world’s biggest industrial corporation and produced one-fourth of the nation’s steel. However, vertical integration and horizontal consolidation helped concentrate power in a few giant corporations and limited competition.

According to business magnates such as Rockefeller and Carnegie, their huge enterprises provided new products at lower costs and enriched the nation, as well as themselves. Stressing the value of competition, captains of industry argued that it ensured the survival of the most competent. Business leaders also endorsed a policy of laissez-faire. Government, they believed, should leave business alone. In fact, the federal government adopted policies to benefit big business. Congress passed high tariffs (taxes on imported products) that impeded foreign competition; federal subsidies to railroads enriched investors; and courts penalized labor more often than business.

Factors Leading to Change (1)

USHC-4.2 Analyze the factors that influenced the economic growth of the United States and its emergence as an industrial power, including the abundance of natural resources; government support and protection in the form of railroad subsidies, tariffs, and labor policies; and the expansion of international markets.
Assignment: Read the article on the factors that influenced the economic growth of the United States. After reading the article, analyze the factors and write an essay (5 paragraphs) explaining how those factors led to the emergence of the U.S. as an industrial power.


Role of Capitalism and its Impact on Democracy (2)

Capitalism has played a central role in the development of the United States and the American economy since the first settlers landed (USHC 1.1). Capitalism is an economic system that is characterized by private ownership of property and the use of that property to make a profit for the individual or the corporation acting as an individual. As such, capitalism supports the democratic ideal of individual freedom and opportunity. Corporations promoted early industrialization before the Civil War by raising capital through the sale of stock to invest in large scale business ventures. In the post-Civil War period, corporations became larger and more powerful through mergers and monopoly and had a greater influence on the economy, politics and government policy. Consequently, critics began to question the compatibility of large unfettered corporations and the rights of workers and consumers in a democracy.

New industries rose to prominence in the post-Civil War period. The railroad was the economic engine that drove the economy. The establishment of several transcontinental routes helped to unite the country and promoted economic growth and the development of a national market (USHC 4.1). The industry’s need for steel rails; wooden railroad ties and railroad cars; and its ability to transport goods contributed to the growth of the steel, the lumber, the meat packing, and the coal industries; and many others. The railroad brought new settlers through aggressive advertising and land sales and provided farmers access to markets. New towns grew along its routes and older ones were able to specialize in particular products. Competition caused some railroads to be forced to merge with others to survive. When the cut-throat competition drove some railroad companies into bankruptcy, the national economy was thrown into depression. Entrepreneurs used new technologies and new business tactics to create large corporations to control their industry. The practices of Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller are offered as examples of the role of entrepreneurs. The introduction of the Bessemer process and astute business practices prompted the ascendancy of Andrew Carnegie to control of the steel industry through a vertical integration of his business that gave him a monopoly. Carnegie controlled the steel industry from the mining of iron ore and coal to the steel mill. John D. Rockefeller used a variety of tactics in his struggle against his competitors to gain control of the oil industry. He forced railroads to give him kickbacks and rebates that hurt his competitors. He controlled retail outlets and forced them not to sell the products of his competitors. He undersold the market until he drove his competition out and then increased the price of oil. He initiated the business device known as the trust to gain control of the oil refining industry through a horizontal integration. When public concern over monopoly led to the passage of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, Rockefeller turned to the holding company to continue his monopoly. Critics of these entrepreneurs and unfettered capitalism questioned whether the interests of the so-called “Robber Barons” were protected too much by government. Whether the business leaders in this period should be labeled robber barons or captains of industry can be debated. It is important to understand that unfettered competition led to economic uncertainty and periodic depressions and eventually to a public call for government regulation of monopolistic practices. Through the democratic process, the voting public pressured the Congress to assert limited control over the power of Big Business through the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. Concerns of the public over the political power of the monopolies later contributed to the Progressive Movement (USHC 4.6).

Public concerns over monopoly were offset by the popularity of pro-business ideologies. Captains of industry justified their sometime use of cut-throat practices with the ideologies of Social Darwinism (survival of the fittest) and laissez faire capitalism (government hands off). However, contrary to both of these ideologies, captains of industry also advocated government protection of the rights of management against labor and called for high tariffs to protect their monopolies. Popular literature such as the Horatio Alger stories of “rags to riches” success provided support for the myth that anyone could make it if they worked hard enough. Andrew Carnegie improved his public image with his advocacy of the Gospel of Wealth and gave away millions to libraries and universities. John D. Rockefeller was also a philanthropist, especially after his business practices came under public scrutiny and the threat of anti-trust action during the early twentieth century.

Despite the higher prices that monopolies were able to charge for their products, the period ushered in a rise in the standard of living and new consumer products for many Americans. The harnessing of electricity and the invention of the typewriter and the telephone provided new opportunities for women in the workplace and new conveniences in the home. Deflation and mass production lowered the price of goods. Although mass production was in use in this time period, the assembly line was not introduced until 1913 by Henry Ford. This is a common confusion that should be avoided. However, some Americans, including farmers and factory workers, did not enjoy this improved standard of living because of low prices for their crops and low wages for their labor.

Role of Capitalism and its Impact on Democracy (2)

USHC-4.3 Evaluate the role of capitalism and its impact on democracy, including the ascent of new industries, the increasing availability of consumer goods and the rising standard of living, the role of entrepreneurs, the rise of business through monopoly and the influence of business ideologies.
Assignment: After reading the article on “Role of Capitalism and its Impact on Democracy” answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper:

  1. What is Capitalism?

  2. What democratic ideal does capitalism promote? How?

  3. How did the railroad promote economic growth?

  4. Who was Andrew Carnegie? What is he known for?

  5. What is the Bessemer process?

  6. Who was John D Rockefeller? What is he known for?

  7. What is a Monopoly? Why would a business owner want one?

  8. What was the argument of the critics of unregulated capitalism?

  9. What is “Social Darwinism”?

  10. What is laissez faire capitalism?

  11. What idea did the Horatio Alger stories of “rags to riches” promote?

  12. What was the “Gospel of Wealth? Who promoted it?

  13. How did this time period impact most Americans?

Farmers’ Protests and Populism (3)

Beset by crop failures in the 1880s, Midwestern farmers dealt with falling prices, scarce money, and debt. To cope with these problems, farmers began forming farmers’ alliances, which multiplied in the Great Plains and spread to the South, where white and black farmers formed separate alliances. Working together in these cooperative organizations, farmers hoped to lower costs by buying supplies at reduced prices, obtaining loans at rates below those charged by banks, and building warehouses to store crops until prices became favorable.

In 1889 the Southern and Northwestern alliances merged and in 1890 became politically active. In the early 1890s, alliance delegates formed a national party, the People’s Party, whose members were called Populists, and decided to wage a third-party campaign. The delegates nominated James B. Weaver as the party’s candidate for president in 1892. Although he lost, the party won several governorships and legislative seats. Populism inspired colorful leaders, such as lawyer Mary E. Lease of Kansas, a powerful orator, and Tom Watson of Georgia, who urged cooperation among black and white farmers.

Populists supported a slate of reforms. These included calls for the government to issue more silver coins and paper currency; such inflationary measures, Populists hoped, would raise farm prices and enable farmers to pay off their debts. They wanted the government to regulate closely or even to take over the railroads in the hope of lowering farmers’ transportation costs. The Populists also supported a graduated income tax to more equitably distribute the costs of government, as well as tariff reduction, abolition of national banks, direct popular elections of U.S. senators, and an eight-hour workday for wage earners.

Economic collapse in the 1890s increased agrarian woes. The panic of 1893 was followed by a depression that lasted until 1897. Businesses went bankrupt, railroads failed, industrial unemployment rose, and farm prices fell. The depression increased doubts about laissez-faire economic policies.

The money question, an issue since the 1870s, dominated the election of 1896. Populists supported the Democratic candidate, William Jennings Bryan, who called for free silver, or free and unlimited coinage of silver. Bryan electrified the Democratic convention with a powerful denunciation of the gold standard. But Republican William McKinley, with a huge campaign chest and business support, won the election. With McKinley, Republicans gained a majority of the electorate that lasted, with only one interruption, until the New Deal in the 1930s.

The corporate elite was now empowered in national politics. The influence of the Populist Party declined after the election, but the massive protest stirred by Populists did not completely fail. Many of the reforms that agrarian protesters endorsed were eventually enacted in the Progressive Era. But Populists had been unable to turn back the clock to a time when farmers had more autonomy, or to remedy the economic problems of the new industrial society.

Farmers’ Protests and Populism (3)

USHC-4.4 Explain the impact of industrial growth and business cycles on farmers, workers, immigrants, labor unions, and the Populist movement and the ways that these groups and the government responded to the economic problems caused by industry and business.

Assignment: After reading the article on “Farmer’s Protests and Populism” analyze the transformation of America from an agrarian to an industrial economy. You need to judge this transformation. (Who was it good for? Who did it hurt? Why? How do you know this? How did those affected react? How successful were they? What could have been done differently?) –Write a paragraph about it. (YOUR WORDS)

Labor (4)

The trend toward large-scale production changed the structure of the labor force and the nature of work. From 1870 to 1900, as the industrial work force expanded, the unskilled worker replaced the artisan or autonomous craftsperson. The typical workplace was more likely to be a large factory than a small workshop. Striving for efficiency, employers replaced skilled labor with machines and low-paid workers. Factory tasks became specialized, repetitive, and monotonous. The need for unskilled labor drew women and children into the industrial work force. Some performed piecework, work paid for according to the amount produced rather than the hours worked, in crowded tenements; others operated machinery in textile mills and garment plants. Industrial labor in the late 19th century was often hazardous. Workers lacked protection against industrial accidents, long hours, wage cuts, layoffs, and sudden bouts of unemployment. Industrial labor in the late 19th century was often hazardous.

As the industrial work force grew, tensions increased between labor and management. They disagreed over issues such as wages, length of the working day, and working conditions. Labor unions emerged to protect the rights of workers and to represent them in negotiations with management. Most employers vigorously opposed trade union activity, and struggles between workers and employers often became violent.

The first national labor organization, the Knights of Labor, organized in 1869, tried to include all workers. The Knights reached their greatest strength between 1884 and 1885, when railroad strikes raged, and then declined. As the Knights of Labor faded, a new federation of local and craft unions, the American Federation of Labor (AFL), was organized in 1886. Led from 1886 to 1924 by Samuel Gompers, an immigrant cigar maker from England, the AFL welcomed skilled workers, almost all of them men. The AFL focused on hours, wages, working conditions, and union recognition by management. It also favored use of economic weapons such as strikes and boycotts.

Late-19th-century unions attracted only a small portion, perhaps 5 percent, of the work force, but strikes involved far more workers. In the last quarter of the century, thousands of strikes aroused public concern, and several large, violent events evoked fear. The great railroad strike of 1877 was a wildcat strike (a strike by a union local without consent of the national union to which it belongs) set off by wage cuts on a single railroad line. It became a nationwide protest that almost ended rail traffic and led to scores of deaths. Only the arrival of federal troops ended the strike.

In the 1880s, a decade of 10,000 strikes and lockouts, workers often succeeded in averting wage reductions and winning shorter hours. Most strikes concerned local grievances but some closed down entire industries and incurred reprisals. The Haymarket Square Riot in Chicago in 1886 grew out of a strike against a company that built agricultural machinery. Union leaders called a protest meeting at which police intervened and a bomb exploded, causing many deaths. Eight people were convicted of murder, and four were hanged. Repelled by the violence, the public blamed the labor movement for the casualties at Haymarket Square, and the Knights of Labor lost influence.

At the end of the 19th century, business often defeated workers’ demands. In the 1890s, at employers’ requests, federal troops crushed strikes at Idaho silver mines, Carnegie’s steel plants, and Pullman railway works. The Pullman strike began when workers for the Pullman Palace Car Company protested wage cuts. The protest led thousands of workers to join the American Railway Union, led by Eugene V. Debs. But employers, who united to break the union, called for an injunction, a court order for workers to return to work, and attained it under the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. Federal troops arrived to enforce the injunction against the union, riots ensued, the strike was crushed, and Debs was arrested, convicted, and imprisoned. The injunction was a powerful tool for business to use against labor.

Besides the injunction, union organizers faced other obstacles, such as blacklists (lists of union activists circulated among employers) and attacks by Pinkerton detectives (agents of a private detective firm that guarded factories, protected railroads, and battled labor). In some instances, employers forced workers to sign “yellow dog contracts,” in which they promised not to join unions. Management retained the upper hand.

Labor (4)

USHC-4.4 Explain the impact of industrial growth and business cycles on farmers, workers, immigrants, labor unions, and the Populist movement and the ways that these groups and the government responded to the economic problems caused by industry and business.
Assignment: After reading the article on labor write an argument for or against the labor movement. You need to take the side of labor or management. What side was right in their actions? You need to use facts and not just your opinion to justify your stand. Make sure you take into consideration the factors listed in USHC-5.4. (YOUR WORDS)

Immigration (5)

Industrial workers of the late 19th century were often foreign-born. From 1865 to 1885, immigrants arrived mainly from northern and western Europe, as they had before the Civil War; the largest groups came from England, Ireland, Germany, and Scandinavia (Old immigrants). From the mid-1880s until World War I began in 1914, the number of newcomers from southern, eastern, and central Europe increased. Many new immigrants were Slavs—Poles, Czechs, Russians, Ukrainians, Croatians—and others, including Jews, from the Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires. Among the new immigrants were also Greeks, Romanians, and Italians, mainly from southern Italy or Sicily. Record numbers of immigrants arrived in the United States, some 9 million from 1880 to 1900, and 13 million from 1900 to 1914.

Late-19th-century immigrants left their European homes to escape economic problems—scarce land, growing populations, and the decline of subsistence farming. They came to the United States in hope of economic gain. Most settled in the United States permanently, but others came only to amass some capital and then return home. Immigration dropped off during depressions, as in the 1870s and 1890s, and again during World War I, with smaller downturns in between. Immigration was encouraged by new technology such as steamships, which reduced the time needed to cross the Atlantic from three months to two weeks or less.

Where immigrants settled depended on their ethnicity and on when they arrived. In the post-Civil War decade, for instance, Scandinavian immigrants used the Homestead Act to start Midwestern farms. Two decades later, immigrants usually moved to industrial towns and cities, where they became unskilled laborers in steel mills, meatpacking plants, and the garment trade. In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where the population increased tenfold from 1850 to 1890, large numbers of Poles and Eastern Europeans found work in rolling mills and blast furnaces. By 1910 immigrants and their families constituted over half the total population of 18 major cities; in Chicago, eight out of ten residents were immigrants or children of immigrants.

Immigrants’ lives changed dramatically after they arrived. Uprooted, usually from rural areas in Europe, immigrants had to adjust to industrial labor, unfamiliar languages, and city life. Clinging to their national identities and religions, immigrants prepared ethnic foods, read foreign-language newspapers, and celebrated ethnic holidays. At the same time, they patronized urban amusements, found community support in local political machines, and adapted to the new environment. Men outnumbered women in new immigrant communities because men often preceded their wives and families.

Immigrants’ huge numbers, high concentrations in cities, and non-Protestant faiths evoked nativist or anti-immigrant sentiments. To native-born Americans, the newcomers often seemed more alien and more transient, less skilled and less literate than earlier groups of immigrants. Some strains of nativism rested on belief in the superiority of Anglo-Americans or Nordic peoples over all others. Other types of nativism reflected economic self-interest: Native-born workers feared competition for jobs from new immigrants; they feared also that immigrants would work for lower wages, which might mean less pay or even unemployment for them.

Both types of nativism arose on the West Coast, where immigration from China had been heavy since the 1850s. Responding to anti-Chinese sentiment, especially among California workers, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882. The law curbed Chinese immigration for ten years, a period that was subsequently extended indefinitely. A small number of immigrants from China continued to arrive, but the number of Chinese entrants slowed to a trickle. In the 1890s, meanwhile, Congress tightened immigration laws to exclude polygamists, contract laborers, and people with diseases. Nativist groups such as the American Protective Association (1887) urged immigration restriction.

Growth of Cities

As immigration exploded, the urban population surged from 6 million in 1860 to 42 million in 1910. Big cities got bigger: Chicago tripled in size in the 1880s and 1890s. By 1900 three cities contained more than a million people: New York (3.5 million), Chicago (1.7 million), and Philadelphia (1.3 million).

In the late 19th century, industry invaded the cities. Previously, cities had served as commercial centers for rural hinterlands and were frequently located on rivers, lakes, or oceans. Manufacturing occurred outside their limits—usually near power sources, such as streams, or natural resources, such as coal. As industry grew, cities changed. Chicago, for instance, had been a railroad center that served the upper Midwest as a shipping hub for lumber, meat, and grain; by 1870 it had taken the lead in steel production as well as meatpacking. Post-Civil War Atlanta, another railroad hub and commercial center, also developed a diverse manufacturing sector. Cities quickly became identified with what they produced—Troy, New York, made shirt collars; Birmingham, Alabama, manufactured steel; Minneapolis, Minnesota, produced lumber; Paterson, New Jersey, wove silk; Toledo, Ohio, made glass; Tulsa, Oklahoma, harbored the oil industry; and Houston, Texas, produced railroad cars.

Population changes also transformed the city. Urban growth reflected the geographic mobility of the industrial age; people moved from city to city as well as within them. The new transience led to diverse populations. Migrants from rural areas and newcomers from abroad mingled with wealthy long-time residents and the middle class. Immigrants constituted the fastest growing populations in big cities, where industry offered work. Urban political machines helped immigrant communities by providing services in exchange for votes. For immigrants, boss politics eased the way to jobs and citizenship. Most, but not all, city machines were Democratic.

Just as industrialization and immigration transformed the city, new technology reshaped it. Taller buildings became possible with the introduction of elevators and construction using cast-iron supports and, later, steel girders. The first steel-frame skyscraper, ten stories high, arose in Chicago in 1885. In 1913 New York’s Woolworth Building soared to a height of 60 stories. Taller buildings caused land values in city centers to increase.

New forms of transportation stretched cities out. First, trolleys veered over bumpy rails, and steam-powered cable cars lugged passengers around. Then cities had electric streetcars, powered by overhead wires. Electric streetcars and elevated railroads enabled cities to expand, absorbing nearby towns and linking central cities with once-distant suburbs. For intercity transport, huge railroad terminals—built like palaces, with columns, arches, and towers—arose near crowded business hubs.

Late-19th-century cities were cauldrons of change. In commerce, they became centers of merchandising with large department stores, which developed in the 1860s and 1870s. As city populations grew, the need for safe water, sanitation, fire control, and crime control also grew. These needs led to new urban services—water reservoirs, sewer systems, fire and police departments. Reformers attempted to enhance urban environments with parks and to improve poor neighborhoods with urban missions. Urban religious leaders of the 1880s promoted the Social Gospel, under which churches concerned themselves with social problems such as poverty, vice, and injustice.

Immigration (5)

USHC-4.5 Explain the causes and effects of urbanization in late nineteenth-century America, including the movement from farm to city, the changing immigration patterns, the rise of ethnic neighborhoods, the role of political machines, and the migration of African Americans to the North, Midwest, and West.
Assignment: After reading the article on immigration, imagine that you are an immigrant living in a large city in the 1890s. (You can be European or Chinese) Write a letter to family back home explaining what life is like in the U.S. Make sure that you include how cities are changing, political machines, restrictions, and anything else you feel is important. After you write the immigrant letter you need to write another letter as if you were a U.S. born citizen living in the city writing to family living in the country. Make sure you include the same information. (Two letters – YOUR WORDS)

The Impact of Industrialization

Three decades of industrial progress transformed American life. By 1900 the United States had an advanced industrial economy, dominated by big corporations. The corporation harnessed ingenuity, created unprecedented wealth, and spurred the growth of new cities such as Chicago, Atlanta, Minneapolis, and Dallas. It increased foreign trade. The value of exports doubled from 1877 to 1900; imports rose, too, but less rapidly. Industrial progress revolutionized the marketing of goods and transformed the office world, now filled with clerical workers, bureaucrats, and middle managers. It also transformed homes by introducing indoor plumbing, electric lights, and household appliances. Overall, industrialization made available labor-saving products, lower prices for manufactured goods, advances in transportation, and higher living standards.

Industrialization had liabilities as well. It brought about vast disparities of wealth and unreliable business cycles, in which overproduction and depression alternated. The economy lurched between boom and panic, as in the 1870s and 1890s; bankruptcy became a common event, especially among indebted railroads that had overbuilt. For laborers, industrialization meant competition for jobs, subsistence wages, insecurity, and danger. Children worked in coal mines and cotton mills; women labored in tenement sweatshops; workers faced the prospect of industrial accidents and illnesses such as respiratory diseases.

Industrialization also exploited natural resources and damaged the environment. Refiners and steel mills spewed oil into rivers and smoke into the atmosphere. Finally, industrialization brought a relentless drive for efficiency and profit that led to ever larger, more powerful businesses and gave the corporate elite undue power in national politics. In the 1890s business leaders’ need for yet larger markets led to pressure on the United States to expand overseas.


For History Dollars write an essay (5 paragraphs) that analyzes the American Industrial Revolution. How did it form? What role did innovation and innovators play? How did it affect different regions of the Country? How did it impact other countries? How was it affected by people from other countries? What impact did it have on different people? What role did government play? What was positive about it? What was negative? Why?

Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2003. © 1993-2002 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

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