Indus Valley persian chart Key



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POLITICAL


  • Leaders/groups

  • Forms of government

  • Empires

  • State building/expansion

  • Political structures

  • Courts/laws

  • Nationalism/nations

  • Revolts/revolutions




  • Effective central government due to evidence of organized

communities and supervision on daily tasks of large number of

laborers


  • Strong ruling class – evidence from the well fortified citadels

  • Powerful priestly class which ruled from the citadels

  • High degree of uniformity suggests a centralized and structured state



ECONOMIC


  • Agricultural, pastoral

  • Economic systems

  • Labor systems/ organizations

  • Industrialization

  • Technology/industry

  • Capital/money

  • Business organizations




  • Extensive trade with cities being major trade centers

  • Grain storage for regulation of grain production and sales

  • Cultivation of wheat, rye, peas, and possibly rice, and cotton

  • Used a standardized system of weights and measure and seals to stamp commodities to facilitate trade




RELIGIOUS


  • Belief systems/ teachings

  • Philosophy

  • Holy books

  • Conversion

  • Key figures

  • Deities




common people (fertility = agriculture)

SOCIAL


  • Family/ kinship

  • Gender roles/relations

  • Social and economic classes

  • Racial/ ethnic factors

  • Entertainment

  • Lifestyles

  • “Haves” & “have nots”




  • Priesthood, upper class

  • Elites less boastful about their position (no elaborate tombs and palaces)

  • Large, richly built houses of 2-3 stories, with indoor plumbing, luxurious bathrooms, brick toilets, and access to running water


INTERACTIONS


  • War/conflict

  • Diplomacy/treaties

  • Alliances

  • Exchanges between individuals, groups, & empires/nations

  • Trade/commerce

  • Globalization




  • Similarities in religion between Indus and Mesopotamia due to trading contacts

  • Also traded with China and Burma

  • Weak military to defend from invaders

  • Invasions from Aryans, an Indo-European group who combined their religious and political ideas with those of the Indus people




ARTS


  • Art

  • Music

  • Writing/literature

  • Philosophy

  • Math

  • Science

  • Education

  • Architecture

  • Technology

  • Innovations

  • Transportation




  • Well-planned citadels fortress protecting the city

  • Public bathing

  • Sewer system

  • Streets, organized and laid out on a grid system

  • Complex writing system, which has not been deciphered



ENVIRONMENTAL


  • Location

  • Physical

  • Human/environment

  • Migration/movement

  • Region

  • Demography

  • Neighborhood

  • Urbanization

  • Settlement patterns

  • Disease

  • Cities (2 major ones)




  • Located in modern-day Pakistan and parts of India

  • Emerged along the Indus River by 2500 B.C.E.

  • Irrigation systems to catch and control waters from the monsoons and rivers

  • Earthquakes, desertification, monsoons [seasonal winds] may have contributed to downfall

  • Mohenjo Daro – Major urban complex of the Harappan

Civilization; laid out on planned grid pattern




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