Indian Subcontinent India Pakistan
South Asia’s Physical & Human Contexts
Flat topography with elevated features on its edge
Islam introduced through invasions
Transformation through British imperialism
Post-World War II independence
Annual Rainfall & Dominant Atmospheric Wind Patterns Over Asia During the Summer
Prevailing winds that occur during particular seasons of the year
Brings pronounced wet and dry seasons
Expresses itself differently in each of the three Asian subregions
Annual Rainfall & Dominant Atmospheric Wind Patterns Over Asia During the Winter
Expresses itself differently in each of
the three subregions of Asia
Mountain-induced orographic precipitation
Late southwestern monsoon season sometimes includes cyclones.
Deccan Plateau (Southern India)
Annual precipitation levels increase west to east
Much of Indus plain is arid.
Humid Bangladesh characterized by semideciduous and tropical rainforest vegetation
Water supply is seasonal.
Summer or west monsoon provides 85% of annual rainfall totals.
Himalayan Mountains – world’s highest range
Mount Everest – world’s highest mountain peak
50 other peaks over 7,500 m (25,000 ft.)
Forms a cultural and physical barrier
Result of collision of India and Eurasian plate
Ongoing uplift and erosion
Often referred to as the “Indian subcontinent”
Territorial dominance of India
Substantial population density
Primarily a rural region
Tradition of state control of industry
Divisive role of ethnicity, religion, and politics in economic development process
80% of India’s population (800 million)
Minority religion in Sri Lanka and Bhutan
The Caste System
Social groupings – 4 categories
Membership is hereditary
Buddhism and Jainism
Developed as a reaction to Hinduism
largest organized religion in world
Spread east and north into Southeast Asia and East Asia
Sri Lanka 70% Buddhist
Also found in Bhutan, Nepal, and Afghanistan
Jainism – code of nonviolence
Most 4 million Jains live in India
of worlds smaller religions
Introduced by Arab traders 700s AD
Strongholds in NW and east India
Pakistan and Bangladesh
Only 11% of India’s population but an important minority (120 million people)
Combines aspects of Hinduism with monotheism
Concentrated in Punjab region
Approximately 25 million
Languages of South Asia
Over 1600 languages
Hindi is national language
English – lingua franca
Sinhalese (Sri Lanka)
Tamil (Sri Lanka)
Early British influence
British East India Company
Indirectly came to control up to two-thirds of country
Replaced native administration
Took actions to decimate textile industry in 19
By 1900s, South Asia was a total colonial possession.
contours totally altered
Industrial development slow-paced
Jammu and Kashmir
Accommodating Diversity in India
Created as a secular state
Religion has become a predominant political issue relating to castes.
Rise of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
Federalism as a political structure
Hindi–Official language and most widely spoken
Population Contours of India
More than 1 billion people
Second most populous country in the world
Population growth rate double that of China
Quadrupled in past 85 years
¾ live in rural villages
Changing age structure
Explaining the Decline in Population Growth Rates
Growth rates vary between ethnic, religious, and caste groups.
In general, Hindus have fewer children than Muslims.
Unequal gender relationships
Heading toward stage three of demographic
Population Growth Rates of Indian Political Units
Gender Bias of Indian Political Units 2001
Agricultural Development in India
62% of population engaged in some form of agricultural pursuits.
65% in rural villages and small towns
Spatial distribution determined by availability of water.
Heavy reliance on livestock
Various dairy products
Cattle are primary source of power for plowing and short-distance transport.
Agricultural Productivity and Change
Sources of rural poverty are many.
Lack of health access and other social services
Lack of meaningful land reform
Average size of household plot is 6.5 acres.
Negative impact of Green Revolution
Negative impact of government economic policies
Hasn’t solved problems
Has exacerbated economic inequalities
Agricultural Regions of India
India’s Industrial Economy
Strong industrial resource base
Fossil fuels can adequately power the industrial base.
Iron ore counts for 6% of world production and 5% of world reserves.
Government has constructed hydroelectric facilities to make up for shortages in commercial energy.
Carefully planned economy by government
Primary Mineral and Industrial
Regions of South Asia
Diversified industrial sector is emerging–Damodar Valley
Mumbai is second most important industrial region.
Cotton textile manufacturing
Bangalore– “Silicon Valley of India”
Other computer software firms
Highly educated university graduates
Concern to stem brain drain
Stark contrasts between urban and rural world
Prosperity gap has widened in the postindustrial economy.
Greater levels of rural to urban migration
Stream of urban migrants has exceeded urban employment opportunities.
Urbanization levels low into the mid-20
Rural to urban migration
Natural increase of urban population
Most population growth in large cities
Thirty-five cities with more than 1
Some are megacities, but not “world cities”
Insufficient finance, transport, and telecommunications
First- and second- generation rural to urban migrants see the city as a place for greater economic opportunity.
Lack of adequate income to secure durable housing
Some in substandard housing
–“Village in a city”
Electricity, sewage, and water rare
Created in 1947
A west and east formed
West–Closer to the West
East–Closer to southeast Asia
Tenuous from the beginning
East gained independence in 1971 (renamed Bangladesh).
Tensions with India
Jammu and Kashmir
Joint nuclear ambitions
Post-9/11/2001 relationship with US in al Qaeda fight
Continues to rank as one of the world’s poorest countries
One of the larger debtor nations
Agriculture based on wheat, rice, leather products, and carpets.
Located in transitional location between Islamic Middle East and Hindu India.
“Dysfunctional country with little evidence of a civil society”
in the Crossroads
169 million population
Formerly East and West Pakistan until 1970s, when East Pakistan became Bangladesh.
Language is 96% Punjab.
Parts of Sharia in legal system
Tension among civil society, religious elements, and military rule.
Madrasahs helped to support militant Islam.
Supported Pushtuns and Taliban government in Afghanistan prior to 9/11/2001
Formerly East Pakistan after 1971 civil war
Great cyclone in 1971 resulted in a sharply reduced agriculture economy.
Economy rests almost completely on agriculture.
Poorly developed industrial economy
Relatively stable government
Child labor is widespread.
Half the rural population is landless.
Physical and cultural transition between Tibet in north and India to south
Most populated part is central foothills–Kathmandu Valley
Worldwide success in marketing its natural and cultural heritage
Tourism industry creates substantial domestic employment opportunities.
90% involved in subsistence agriculture
Exacerbated demands on women in economy
Landlocked country Himalayan Country
Tiny Buddhist kingdom
Buffer state between India and China
Limits tourists and outside influences
Policy of “Gross National Happiness”
20 million population
Tamil-speaking Hindus for the rest
Gained independence from British in 1948
Changed name from Ceylon in 1972
Government programs have significantly improved life.
Some social indicators on par with developed countries
Exports count for about one- third of the economy.
Tea, rubber, and coconut
Over 1,000 islands
Fishing and tourism main economic activities
Coastal pollution problems
Tourism industry affected by 2004 tsunami
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