Increasing Conflict and War, 1805-1815



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CHAPTER 9

Increasing Conflict and War, 1805-1815

0Learning Objectives


After you read and analyze this chapter, you should be able to:

10. Trace how steps taken by the warring powers of Europe affected Jefferson’s efforts to remain neutral in the struggle between France and England.

20. Describe the effects of Jefferson’s embargo policy on the United States and explain why frontier politicians began to advocate war with Britain.

30. Explain how the United States became involved in the War of 1812 and the war’s strange conclusion.

40. Analyze the effect of the War of 1812 on the United States and the changing economic conditions of the nation’s geographical regions.

0Chapter Outline0


I0. Troubling Currents in Jefferson’s America

A0. Emerging Factions in American Politics

10. Federalists in the Northeast began to plan to secede from the United States.

a0) Timothy Pickering and the Essex Junto believed their interests could not succeed under the Republicans.

20. Divisions appeared also among the Republicans.

a0) John Randolph of Virginia opposed the expansion of the government’s power under Jefferson and his proposed solution to the Yazoo controversy.

b0) Randolph formed a third party because of Jefferson’s scheme to acquire Florida.

30. Aaron Burr caused the Republicans considerable discomfort.

a0) Burr schemed with the Essex Junto to bring New York State into their proposed secession.

b0) After losing election as governor of New York, he killed Hamilton in a duel.

c0) He next participated in a scheme to establish a new republic in the West.

d0) During Burr’s trial for treason, Jefferson clashed with Chief Justice Marshall and then suffered the embarrassment of Burr’s acquittal.

B0. The Problem of American Neutrality

10. Renewed warfare in Europe led to American prosperity between 1803 and 1807.

a0) Exports to Europe rose.

b0) Re-exports of foreign goods to Europe also increased.

20. America was neutral in the war, but faced pressure from the warring powers.

a0) England seized British sailors on American ships.

b0) France’s Berlin Decree barred neutral ships from landing at French ports if they had been at English ports.

c0) Britain’s Orders in Council required neutral ships going to Europe to first pay a tax at an English port.

C0. Economic War

10. Efforts by the Europeans to enforce their policies led to tension with the United States.

a0) The British Leopard fired on an American ship and seized sailors on it while in American waters.

b0) In the Milan Decree, France announced it would seize neutral ships that traded with England or that had been boarded by English impressment parties.

20. To preserve neutrality, Jefferson decided to embargo all trade with Europe.

II0. Crises in the Nation

A0. Economic Depression

10. The embargo caused a severe depression.

a0) Northeastern shipping crashed.

b0) Southern and western agricultural exports went down sharply.

B0. Political Upheaval

10. Madison’s easy victory for the presidency disguised divisions in the nation.

a0) Federalists attracted support because of the depression caused by the embargo.

b0) Some southern Republicans (the Tertium Quids) attempted to nominate James Monroe.

c0) Northeastern Republicans tried to elect George Clinton because of the embargo.

20. Republican strength increased in the congressional elections two years later.

a0) The new Republicans in Congress did not support Madison’s moderate approach to England; they wanted war.

C0. The Rise of the Shawnee Prophet

10. A key reason for War Hawk militancy was the unsettled conditions along the western frontier.

20. In the midst of the crisis, one disheartened, diseased alcoholic rose above his afflictions to lead the Indians into a brief new era of hope.

a0) Whites called him “The Prophet.”

b0) He taught them to go back to their traditional lifestyle.

c0) The Prophet at first preached nonviolence but later advocated resistance by the Indians.

D0. Prophecy and Politics in the West

10. Tecumseh began to organize frontier Indians in a confederation to end white expansion.

a0) Americans charged that he and the Prophet (his brother) were British agents.

20. Westerners began to advocate war with Britain.

a0) War would provide an excuse for breaking up emerging Indian confederations.

b0) War would make it possible to seize Canada and to secure American control of the Northwest Territory.

c0) Frontiersmen blamed England for the depression of 1808.

E0. Choosing War

10. Early in 1811, Madison was forced to suspend all trade with the British.

a0) France’s devious use of Macon’s Bill No. 2 required a suspension of all trade with England.

20. Developments in the West increased pressure for war with Britain.

a0) Tecumseh and Governor William Henry Harrison reached a stalemate over the Fort Wayne Treaty.

b0) Harrison assembled an army at Prophetstown after an isolated Indian raid elsewhere.

c0) At the Battle of Tippecanoe, the Prophet’s forces attacked but were defeated by Harrison, who then destroyed Prophetstown.

d0) Tecumseh assembled an army.

e0) Harrison asked for federal military support against what he said was a British-Indian declaration of war.

30. Congress declared war on Britain.

III0. The Nation at War

A0. The Fighting Begins

10. The land war included a three-pronged attack on Canada and attacks against the Indians.

a0) The attacks against Canada failed.

b0) Raids against Indian villages succeeded.

20. The naval war was more successful.

a0) The American navy sank several British ships.

b0) Privateers captured many British vessels.

30. The election of 1812 reflected misgivings about the war.

a0) Madison won, but barely, and Republican strength in Congress declined.

b0) The Federalists supported DeWitt Clinton—a northeastern Republican opposed to the war.

B0. The War Continues

10. America scored victories on Lake Erie.

20. In the North, the two sides harassed each other.

a0) Tecumseh—who was fighting with the British—was killed during an American foray into Canada.

30. War erupted in the South with part of the Creek Nation.

a0) The Red Stick faction, which had joined Tecumseh’s confederation, scored a victory in the Fort Mims Massacre.

b0) Tennessee and Georgia forces inflicted severe losses on the Red Sticks in retaliation.

40. The British seized control of the Atlantic.

a0) American ships were blockaded in port.

C0. The Politics of War

10. Negotiations with the British began at the end of 1813.

20. Congress took action to strengthen the army and to raise money.

a0) The army’s size was increased, and incentives were offered to increase enlistments.

b0) Congress authorized a loan and new treasury notes.

30. Congress enacted the Embargo of 1813.

a0) Its purpose was to end trade with Britain via neutral ships.

b0) The ban on all trade affected the economies of all states, particularly those in the Northeast.

D0. New British Offensives

10. France’s defeat led to a British buildup in North America.

20. The British began a three-pronged offensive.

a0) The British invasion at Plattsburgh, New York, was turned back.

b0) The British burned Washington, D.C., but failed to take Baltimore.

c0) In their third prong, the British began to move from Pensacola in Spanish Florida toward New Orleans.

30. Andrew Jackson undertook the defense of the Gulf Coast.

a0) He had earlier inflicted total defeat on the Red Stick Creeks at Horseshoe Bend.

b0) He then organized the defense of New Orleans and defeated the British invasion force there.

E0. The War’s Strange Conclusion

10. The treaty merely ended the war and restored diplomatic relations.
IV0. Peace and the Rise of New Expectations

A0. New Expectations in the Northeastern Economy

10. Cut off from European-manufactured goods, Americans started to make more textiles and other items for themselves.

a0) The spread of textile manufacturing during the embargo and war eras was astonishing.

20. Factories in New England and elsewhere eventually supplied more and more of the country’s consumer goods.

a0) This changed economic roles as well as the hopes of many Americans.

B0. New Opportunities in the West

10. One of the designs behind the exploratory expeditions had been to gain entry for the United States into the burgeoning economy, most notably the fur trade, in the continent’s interior.

20. But American westward expansion posed a terrible threat to Native Americans.

30. Collaboration between the United States and the Native Americans helped to prevent renewed warfare, but at an enormous cost to the Indians.

a0) Many Indians were forced to cede their lands.

C0. A Revolution in the Southern Economy

10. The technological and economic changes that came in the war’s wake pumped new energy into the South’s economy.

a0) But the mechanization of the British textile industry in the late eighteenth century brought dramatic changes.

b0) The production of cotton cloth rapidly increased, and the need for raw cotton fiber grew.

20. Eli Whitney found a solution to the problem of the time and labor required for cotton production.

a0) Whitney designed a machine that quickly combed out seeds and did not require a large number of skilled operators.

b0) The outcome of Whitney’s inventiveness was the rapid spread of short-staple cotton.

30. With the departure of the British naval blockade, cotton growing began to spread at a staggering rate.

D0. Reviving and Reinventing Slavery

10. Many southerners began to question the use of slaves as early as the 1780s.

20. Some southern leaders advocated abolishing slavery and transporting freed blacks back to Africa.

30. As a result of the booming southern economy after the War of 1812, African American slavery expanded as never before.

40. Specialized manufacturing in the North and large-scale commercial food production in the West permitted an intensified cotton industry in the South.

a0) This helped foster the increasing dehumanization of the peculiar labor system that drove it.

0Identifications


Identify the following items and explain the significance of each. While you should include any relevant historical terms, using your own words to write these definitions will help you better remember these items for your next exam.

10. William Henry Harrison

20. secede

30. Essex Junto

40. John Randolph

50. Yazoo affair

60. Tertium Quid

70. impressments

80. Berlin Decree

90. Milan Decree

100. Embargo of 1808

110. party caucus

120. James Monroe

130. War Hawks

140. The Prophet

150. Tecumseh

160. Old Northwest

170. Non-Intercourse Act

180. Macon’s Bill No. 2

190. Battle of Tippecanoe

200. John C. Calhoun

210. Old Ironsides

220. War of 1812

230. Oliver Hazard Perry

240. flagship

250. Andrew Jackson

260. merchant marine

270. Embargo of 1813

280. bond

290. discretionary powers

300. Francis Scott Key

310. Battle of Horseshoe Bend

320. Jean Laffite

330. Battle of New Orleans

340. concession

350. Treaty of Ghent

360. cotton

370. Eli Whitney

380. patent

0Multiple-Choice Questions


Select the correct answer.

10. Tertium Quids were

a0. disenchanted Republicans who opposed Jefferson.

b0. New Englanders who supported a renewed Federalist Party.

c0. westerners who advocated the sale of public lands.

d0. southerners who attacked slavery.

20. Aaron Burr found himself tried for treason because he

a0. plotted with the Essex Junto for New York to secede from the United States.

b0. supported Tecumseh and the Prophet.

c0. allegedly participated in a scheme against the United States.

d0. mortally wounded Alexander Hamilton.

30. Incidents like the attack on the Chesapeake showed that

a0. England had every intention of continuing to impress British sailors found on neutral ships.

b0. America had an incompetent navy.

c0. France would enforce the Berlin Decree at any cost.

d0. America could not trust the French any more than the English.

40. American relations were particularly strained with Britain during the Jefferson administration because of the British practice of

a0. embargoing American goods entering Britain.

b0. smuggling contraband into the United States.

c0. impressment of American sailors.

d0. pirating American ships on the high seas.

50. As a result of the depression of 1808,

a0. farmers in the West once again rose in rebellion.

b0. Jefferson called out the army to suppress rioting in New York City, Boston, and Philadelphia.

c0. Jefferson lost the election of 1808.

d0. textile manufacturing in the United States began to increase.

60. To many whites on the Ohio frontier, Prophetstown represented

a0. protection against Indian marauders.

b0. the last outpost of civilized culture in the wilderness.

c0. the threat of Indian militancy.

d0. the potential of religion for converting Indians to white culture.

70. Napoleon exploited Macon’s Bill No. 2 by

a0. agreeing to Jefferson’s embargo policy.

b0. secretly allowing American merchandise to be shipped to England.

c0. promising to stop French restrictions on American ships.

d0. dropping his threat to take back Louisiana by force.

80. To Native Americans, William Henry Harrison represented

a0. Americans who sincerely sought peace with the Shawnees.

b0. white militant expansionists.

c0. American officials who were convinced that Tecumseh was a potential ally against the British.

d0. British agents who sought to destabilize the American frontier.

90. The War Hawks

a0. argued that the British were allied with the Indians on the frontier.

b0. opposed the Northeast’s Federalists.

c0. represented the South and West in Congress.

d0. All of these

100. Andrew Jackson rose to national prominence

a0. as governor of Tennessee.

b0. when he defeated the British at New Orleans.

c0. by facing down the British during the Treaty of Ghent negotiations.

d0. for his denunciations of President Madison’s conduct of the war.

110. Napoleon’s defeat in Europe subsequently caused danger to the United States because

a0. the new rulers of France sided with the English against the Americans.

b0. American shipping was no longer protected by the French navy.

c0. the American economy was ruined by the cessation of trade with France.

d0. Britain was able to send more troops to North America.

120. The Battle of Horseshoe Bend

a0. meant the end of Creek military power in the South.

b0. posed grave danger to the American defenders of New Orleans.

c0. was a stunning defeat for the British, who had tried to invade New York State from Canada.

d0. made England and the United States decide to end the war by negotiating.

130. The War of 1812 had all of the following effects EXCEPT

a0. stimulating the growth of industry in America.

b0. promoting agricultural exports.

c0. increasing the number of factory workers in the United States.

d0. making the United States more economically self-sufficient.

140. As a consequence of Eli Whitney’s work,

a0. New Orleans fell to the British.

b0. cotton agriculture soared in the South.

c0. fur trapping in the West expanded.

d0. Tecumseh’s movement was destroyed.

150. The Treaty of Ghent

a0. awarded vast new territories to the United States.

b0. permitted Britain to navigate freely on the Mississippi River.

c0. changed nothing that had existed before the War of 1812.

d0. dealt successfully with the issue of impressment.


0Essay Questions


10. Although both France and Britain violated the neutrality of the United States, the nation chose to go to war only with England. What can account for this?

DEVELOPING YOUR ANSWER: You should explore the following three factors in formulating your answer:

a0. The pressure of western settlers for war with England, explaining why the West was so hostile to the British.

b0. The highhanded behavior of the British on the high seas, exhibited in the practice of stopping neutral ships and impressing British sailors found on them, and in such incidents as the attack on the Chesapeake.

c0. Napoleon’s success in connection with Macon’s Bill No. 2.

20. Enjoying fame as a result of their actions before and during the War of 1812, both William Henry Harrison and Andrew Jackson in later years became presidents of the United States. Describe how the records of these men in connection with the War of 1812 contributed to their reputations.

DEVELOPING YOUR ANSWER: Harrison’s unyielding opposition to the Prophet and his brother, Tecumseh, led to the Battle of Tippecanoe, the name given by history to the confrontation at Prophetstown and its destruction. Once war broke out with England, Harrison led the campaign against Canada. Finally, late in 1813, he struck in Canada and defeated a British force there. His forces also killed Tecumseh.

Andrew Jackson achieved fame first against the Red Stick Creek Indians and then against the British. He inflicted a withering defeat on the Red Sticks at Horseshoe Bend. He then invaded Florida (which was still Spanish) contrary to orders, and forced the British out of Pensacola. Later, in the Battle of New Orleans, Jackson achieved his most spectacular victory. In addition to the actual fighting there, you should demonstrate how he organized the city to oppose the British and took some unorthodox steps in the process.

30. Because the treaty that ended the War of 1812 left matters largely as they had been before the war, it would appear that this conflict had little impact on the United States. Do you agree?

DEVELOPING YOUR ANSWER: It is true that the Treaty of Ghent did not resolve such problems (for Americans, at least) as impressment, the rights of neutrals, and the presence of the British in Canada, but the country did undergo change as a result of the conflict. For one, Americans felt more secure because of the elimination of the threat they thought that Native Americans east of the Mississippi River posed. The Red Stick Creeks had been destroyed militarily in the South, while in the Northwest Territory, Tecumseh had been killed and the Prophet’s revival movement had evaporated. Tecumseh’s death meant the end to his dream of a confederation to stop white expansion.

The country also began to change economically. The embargoes of 1808 and 1813 had caused depressions, but they forced Americans to begin manufacturing on their own. Furthermore, the war had demonstrated the necessity for a better transportation network, something that would facilitate the movement of not only troops in wartime but also merchandise in times of peace.

Finally, the Federalist Party went into a decline from which it never recovered. Federalists’ disenchantment with the war led them to contemplate the secession of the Northeast from the United States. This ruined them politically, especially when news of the victory at New Orleans and of the Treaty of Ghent spread across the nation. With the Federalists gone as an effective force, only one political party, the Republicans, remained.


0Map Exercises


10. Following their defeat of Napoleon, the British launched a three-pronged campaign in North America aimed at defeating the United States. Demonstrate where the British attempted to implement their strategy. (Consult Map 9.2 to verify the accuracy of your depiction.)

20. Assume that you were a contemporary British war planner who objected to this plan. Indicate on Map 9.2 how you would instead attack the United States. Explain the reasons for your alternative recommendations in a brief “campaign plan.”


0Individual Choices

0Tecumseh


To answer the following questions, consult the Individual Choices section at the beginning of the chapter.

10. How did Tecumseh’s lineage demonstrate unity between all Native American people?

20. How did most Americans in the early nineteenth century view Indians? How did they use that view to justify their own actions?

30. Did Tecumseh’s life fit this white-held stereotype? Why or why not?

40. Identify and explain the significance of the Treaty of Greenville.

50. Describe Tecumseh’s plan to challenge white control of their land and peoplees. Did it work? Why or why not?

60. What role did William Henry Harrison play in these white/Indian clashes?

70. What role did the British play in these white/Indian clashes?

80. Explain the significance of Tecumseh’s death to white/Indian relations in the early 19th century United States.

0Individual Voices

0Examining a Primary Source: Tecumseh Describes American Indian Policy Under William Henry Harrison


To answer the following questions, consult the Individual Choices section at the beginning of the chapter.

10. Identify the Vincennes Conference.

20. Identify the role of Winemac in Harrison’s dealings with the Indians.

30. What exactly is Tecumseh charging Harrison and his agents of doing? What does this suggest about Tecumseh’s understanding of the nature of Indian organization and Harrison’s misunderstandings about it?

40. Why would Tecumseh insist that warriors rather than village chiefs decide policy toward the United States?

50. What did Tecumseh propose to do if Harrison persisted in conducting Indian policy and land acquisition as he had done at Fort Wayne? Why do you think Tecumseh chose this particular approach?

60. Would have you have taken the same approach? Justify your answer.

RUBRIC: As you read more about frontier politicians, complete the following rubric. Think about the choices each made in expanding the nation westward and their continual conflicts with the peoples already living there.



FRONTIER POLITICIANS

POLITICAL BACKGROUND

MILITARY BACKGROUND

INDIAN GROUPS

OUTCOMES OF CONFRONTATIONS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0Answers to Multiple-Choice Questions


1. a. Their leader, John Randolph, depicted himself as the last true Republican. See page 243.

b. The Tertium Quids were a breakaway group of Republicans who opposed Jefferson. See page 243.

c. The Tertium Quids were not a western movement. Their leader was from the South. See page 243.

d. They did not attack the institution of slavery. See page 243.

2. c. Although the details are not clear, Burr apparently plotted against the United States in some way in what was then the Southwest. See pages 243-244.

a. If anything, Burr’s loss of the election as governor of New York State impeded the plans of the Essex Junto. See pages 243-244.

b. Burr did not have ties to Tecumseh and the Prophet. See pages 243-244.

d. Burr was indicted for murder, not tried for treason, for killing Hamilton in their duel. See pages 243-244.

3. a. The British attacked the Chesapeake, disabled and boarded it, and seized four men. See page 246.

b. The incident involved only one American vessel and not the American navy. See page 246.

c. The engagement was between a British and an American ship. The French were not involved. See page 246.

d. The incident raised troubling questions about the British. See page 246.

4. c. Britain seized (“impressed”) formerly British sailors who had become naturalized American citizens from American ships. See pages 246-247.

a. Britain did not prevent American goods from entering England; it sought, instead, to prevent such goods from reaching France. According to the British, neutral ships (including American ones) could sail to Europe only if they first paid a transit tax in England. See pages 246-247.

b. Britain had no reason to smuggle goods into the United States. For the British economic policy toward neutral nations, see pages 246-247.

d. Although Britain practiced impressment on the high seas, it did not practice piracy against American ships. See pages 246-247.

5. d. Because there was a complete embargo on trade with Europe, the import of European manufactured goods ground to a halt. New American textile mills were erected. See page 248.

a. Although western farmers suffered considerably, they did rise in rebellion as farmers had during Shays’ Rebellion in 1787 and the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794. See pages 247-248.

b. Although the depression badly affected cities in the East and Federalists living there spoke openly of disobeying federal laws, rioting did not occur. See pages 247-248.

c. Jefferson followed George Washington’s precedent and did not run for a third term. See page 247-248.

6. c. This became especially true after the Prophet abandoned his earlier message of passive resistance and began to call for resistance to white expansion. See pages 249-250.

a. They viewed Prophetstown as a center of Indian resistance to white expansion. See pages 249-250.

b. It was an Indian settlement, and its leader advocated rejection of white culture. See pages 249-250.

d. The Prophet advocated a return to Native American culture, including religion. See pages 249-250.

7. c. See page 251.

a. He promised merely to drop French restrictions on American shipping. See page 251.

b. On the contrary, by taking advantage of Macon’s Bl 2, he could compel America to halt all shipping with England. See page 251.

d. Napoleon did not employ such a threat. Macon’s Bl 2 in any case had nothing to do with the Louisiana Purchase. See page 251.

8. b. His militancy became obvious at Prophetstown in 1811. See pages 240-241 and 249-250.

a. Harrison behaved aggressively toward the Indians of the Northwest, who included the Shawnee. See pages 240-241 and 249-250.

c. They believed, on the contrary, that Tecumseh was a British agent. See pages 240-241 and 249-250.

d. Harrison was an American territorial governor. See pages 240-241 and 249-250.

9. d. Because a, b, and c are true, this is the correct choice. See pages 248-249.

a. Although this statement is true, it is not the correct choice. Western advocates of war with Britain believed that the British provoked the Indians on the frontier. See pages 248-249.

b. Although this statement is true, it is not the correct choice. Northeastern Federalists did not favor war with Britain in 1812; they opposed the War Hawks who advocated it. See pages 248-249.

c. Although this statement is true, it is not the correct choice. See pages 248-249.

10. b. The victory was America’s most successful land battle during the war. See page 258.

a. He rose to fame as a military hero. See page 258.

c. The Treaty of Ghent was negotiated in Europe in late 1814; Jackson was fighting in the Southwest.

d. Jackson was not part of the opposition with which Madison had to deal, which arose primarily among Federalists in the Northeast.

11. d. Napoleon’s defeat and subsequent exile enabled Britain to send many more troops across the Atlantic. See page 257.

a. There was no such result.

b. France had never bestowed such protection.

c. The Embargo of 1813, an American measure, devastated the economy, particularly in the Northeast. See page 256.

12. a. Andrew Jackson’s victory over the Red Sticks devastated the Creeks in the South. See page 258.

b. If anything, defeating the Indians at Horseshoe Bend meant that they could not assist in the subsequent British attack on New Orleans. See page 258.

c. The battle took place in the South, far from New York State. See page 258.

d. Both sides were ready to negotiate by the end of 1813; the Battle of Horseshoe Bend occurred in March 1814. See page 258.

13. b. Because this statement is not true, it is the correct choice. The effects of the war did not include more agricultural exports; all states, agricultural as well as commercial, experienced economic losses because of the Embargo of 1813. (The expansion of cotton exports is attributable to the invention of the cotton gin, not to the war.) See pages 258-261.

a. Because this statement is true, it is not the correct choice. Industry began to grow during the war. See pages 258-261.

c. Because this statement is true, it is not the correct choice. Industry grew as a consequence of the war; the number of factory workers therefore began to increase, rising from 4,000 in 1809 to as many as 100,000 in 1816. See pages 258-261.

d. Because this statement is true, it is not the correct choice. The turn to industry caused by the war contributed to economic self-sufficiency. See pages 258-261.

14. b. Whitney’s invention made raising cotton exceedingly profitable. See page 263.

a. Under the leadership of Andrew Jackson, American forces defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans. See page 263.

c. The western fur industry expanded because of such men as John Jacob Astor and Auguste Chouteau. See pages 263.

d. William Henry Harrison could take credit for destroying Tecumseh and his followers. See pages 240-241.

15. c. See page 259.

a. There were no territorial changes as a result of the treaty. See page 259.

b. For the treaty’s terms, see page 259.

d. The treaty changed none of the things that Americans hoped to achieve as a result of the war, including impressment. See page 259.



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