In order to pursue the objectives of the present study, the entire work has been broadly divided into six chapters.
The first chapter, being introductory segment deals with three parts Human Resource Management, Human Resource Development and Telecom Sector. In first part give brief idea about concept, definition, features and importance of Human Resource management. In second part, concept, evolution, History & mechanism about Human Resource Development practices which is heart being Area of our study. The last part is Telecom Sector in which we will collect information. In this we discuss the history, present status of telecom sector also we gain the information about demographic profile of Gwalior.
The second chapter titled ‘Review of Literature’ covers the review of research work carried out by various researchers in the area of Human resource Management, Human resource Development Practices and Telecom Sector. In this we also discuss the many studies which are related to impact of technology changes & working environment on HRD Practices. In review of literature a through reference is made to the existing and accessible works of research scholars.
The third chapter titled Research Methodology is divided in to five pats Research methodology, design, target people, the tools for data collection and tool used for data analysis. The study exploratory in nature with survey was the maid for conducting research. After survey many telecom companies whether they adoptable for adoption new technology, & if they adopt what was the impact of it. Second thing is to find out the condition of working environment in which employees feel comfortable for doing & performing their job in more effective manner. The sample frame employees of Gwalior (M.P.), Datia, Shivpuri and Ashok Nagar. Purposive sampling technique was used to select sample element. The sample size was selected carefully by giving an equal importance o each selected companies which are Bharti Airtel, Relince Communication, Idea Cellular, Vodafone and BSNL. 500 questionnaires were distubreted in 5 different companies equally, out of which 350 were received back after discarding 50 questionnaires as they half field only 300 were considered for further analysis. A structured questionnaire was developed to check the satisfaction level of employees in Telecom Sector. The questionnaire was divided into three sections namely A, B, and C. section A, include HRD practices, Section B and section C measured Working Environment. The final data was collected on a 1 to 5 likert type scale. A likert scale is a type of psychometric scale frequently used in social research. Usually take the following formate.1 indicate minimum agreement & 5 indicate maximum agreement. The entire three questionnaires were tested for reliability and validity. Content validity was established through introduction of measures to panel of judges consisting of expert in the area of specialization from the academic a. Two ways ANOVA was applied to evaluate the significance of difference between the types of HRD Practices. The cause and effect relationship for all the variables were established separately. The relationship between dependent and independent variables were established internal consistency of measures was established through item to total correlation. Items having insignificant correlation coefficient value with total were deleted from the measures. The reliability of all the four measures was computed by using SPSS software.
T-test was performed to analyze difference between values of two independent data sets and response of every case for respective variables. The result was discussed with F values and its significant level then by calculating T value and levels of significant.
Before applying regression analysis on the data was tested for its Normality by non-parametric, one-sample Kolmogorov-smninov Test with the help of SPSS software. The results were tabulated.
After conforming that the data had normal distribution, the data was tested for the relationship between the dependent variable and corresponding independent variables by using SPSS software. After careful analysis it was concluded that the relationship between depended variables and corresponding independent variables is liner and simple liner was applied and results were discussed.
The last chapter i.e. the sixth chapter divided into three parts- Summary, Conclusion and Suggestion. The summary of the complete report is presented in this chapter. The chapter concludes the report by correlating the objective of the study with the results obtained. The compressive suggestion based on the results of the study deals with the HRD is as old as man himself.
The reference has been presented in a standard format. The questionnaire used as tool to collect data is presented in the appendix.
Enormous work has already been done on the subject however, organizations and industries yet need to realize and appreciate the vital role played by the HRD and damages in its non implementations could cause. It is sincerely hoped that the suggestions offered by the Researcher would be useful to the organizations under study and helpful to the management in implementing and formulating the policies and practices in respective organizations, as same would be derived out of the present existing ground realities.
In the light of the above findings, it can be concluded that in recent times, Indian telecom market has emerged as one of the fastest growing telecom markets in the world, particularly by the unparalleled growth in mobile telephony and now the second largest telecommunication market globally. In the present changing scenario human resource development practices play very important role for employee’s point of view as well as development of whole organization. The study in the project has lead to an understanding of the environment encompasses and influences of different HRD practices with respect to technological changes & working environment in the telecommunication sector.
In conclusion the study found technological changes and working environment are not only influencing factor but there may be some other factors which affects HRD practices. A survey was conducted with 3 questionnaire comprising in first 13 items for HRD practices; in second there was 8 items for technological changes & last which is working environment include 28 items related to Quality of Work life and Welfare measures, Organizational programme & policy, psychological contract, Training and Development, Performance Appraisal and Rewards, and Participative Management. Selected companies both Public and Private sector of telecom industry were BSNL Bharti Airtel, Idea, Vodafone and Reliance Communication respectively. The hypotheses of the study are based on these dimensions and the status of the variables is analyzed at different type of HRD practices. Result was analyzed through SPSS 16 version, Statistical Package for Social Sciences for analysis. To check the consistency of all variables item to total correlation test were applied through SPSS and corrected Item to total correlation value had taken which were >.2 as Everitt, B.S. (2002) has taken in his study. Cronbach’s Alpha if item deleted were also measured and found there is no item when dropped increases reliability. Cronbach’s alpha for each variable was calculated to determine the reliability of the tools which are near about cut off value i.e. .7 hence reliability were considered high. After that to check the validity, content validity and face validity refers to the degree to which a test appears to measure what it purports to measure.
Before going factor analysis the KMO and Bartlett,s test of sphercity was calculated and all values were above 0.5 and at p value 0.000. The values indicate that it is suitable to apply factor analysis. After factor analysis of variables HRD practices converge in 6 factors in which employee’s development and personal achievement are major ones. The independent variable technological changes converges in three factors viz. Strategic HRM, Global mindset Training and Cross culture Training while Working environment converges into nine factors in which organization programme and policies is major one.
Regression analysis helps to find out impact of one variable to other.Study found that apart from technological changes there may be other factors which affect HRD practices since calculated value of R square is .073 that meant 7.3% impact on HRD practices. This is because current study concentrated on Gwalior region and maybe there is lack of technological support in this region so technological changes do not affects employees of this region. Study also revealed negligible effect of working environment on HRD practices as calculated value of R square is .020 which meant 2% effects limitedly. The reason behind this may be rigidity in the mindset of people. Maybe they don’t want to adopt changes frequently. Same exposed in impact of technological changes on working environment as R square value is .003 means .3% effect which is unimportant but when combined impact of technological changes & working environment calculated on HRD practices there is surprisingly increase in combined effect since R square value is .098. Meaning is 9.8% combined effect on HRD practices.
Calculated value of T- Test of HRD Practice evaluation and working environment evaluation by both genders revealed no significant difference which gives good sign that the Gwalior region touching towards gender equality. Whereas technological changes evaluation has significant difference by both genders. Mean value of female (27.5392) is greater than male (24.9444) which revealed female of this region has more adaptation towards technological changes. This is because of increasing literacy in it.
With the help of Two Way Annova results revealed that in HRD practices, employees of different ages, qualifications, experiences and salaries have different perceptions. When considering qualification with experience and qualification with salary combined again different perceptions observed while considering experiences and salaries combined same perception is observed.
In technological changes calculated values revealed that employees of different qualification, experience and salary have different perceptions but all age groups have same perception at all. When employees considered their two factors together viz. qualification* experience, qualification* salary and experience* salary, in all groups they different thinking in technological changes in telecom sector.
But amazingly Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variancesof working environment concluded that the demographic profile of employees of telecommunication sector have same thoughts so the null hypothesis is not rejected.
Decision making authority, have to give more opportunities to their employees for personnel growth & development also threw recognition for good work done. This can be achieved throw widening their areas of responsibility larger delegation of authority, adequate feedback & incentives for good work.