Important because this is a break from simply believing the Catholic Church’s perspective all the time

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Hip Hughes: Scientific Method and Enlightenment Overview

  1. Sir Frances Bacon

    1. Development: Scientific Method

    2. Important because this is a break from simply believing the Catholic Church’s perspective all the time.

    3. One example: Disproving Geocentrism … define: ____________________________________________________________

    4. New theory (due to Bacon’s Method): ____________________________

  2. Gallileo & Copernicus – zones in on Heliocentricity

  3. Isaac Newton: gravity

Now that we KNOW the above ideas are truths, man begins to ask “what else can we do & what else can we explore.” It spurs on the newest movement of THINKING!

Not just measurable science, but this era had an impact on how we think about the brain, personality and human thought too. Social sciences: PSYCHOLOGY (study of the brain and human behavior) and SOCIOLOGY (why people in groups behave as they do).

  1. Descartes: Human beings have the power of reason

    1. Individualism: we can investigate our minds and we are impacting the world, it’s not the world impacting us.

  2. Gutenberg – spread our own ideas

    1. Leadds to Protestant Reformation

Government pholosophers

  1. Thomas Hobbes:

    1. Leviathon – he believed humans are evil by nature – not to be trusted! Because we can’t be trusted, we should have a “social contract” with the government that says they will always look out for our well-being, and if we disagree with something the government sayts, we just have to trust that they’re doing whatever it is we disagree with because it’s in our best interest. It says the government needs to keep us safe from each other and ourselves.

      1. This philosophy supports Absolutism!

      2. The people give their freedom to the king

  2. John Locke

    1. Opposite of Hobbes … believes there should be a social contract, but that the power behind the contract needs to come from the people, NOT the king.

    2. His theory: Natural Right! You’re born with freedoms, and the government exists not to protect you from other people, but to protect you from itself.

    3. “Natural Rigths include: life, liberty and property, and the government should protect these rights for their citizens.

    4. Two Treatise on Government” - book about the role of the people in their government; need a government to protect natural rights

Generic Enlightenment thinkers:

  1. Montesquieu:

    1. Fan of John Locke

    2. Believed that when a government breaks a social contract with its people by hindering their natural rights, the people have the right to overthrow their government.

    3. Govenrment power is too corrupting

    4. Should develop a checks and balances system and separation of powers systems so no one person (or group) has too much power

      1. Ex: Parliament and Prime Minister in England

      2. Ex: Congress, President and Supreme Court

  2. Rousseau:

    1. Social Contract: Argued the biggest problem in society is the distribution of wealth

    2. What does this mean? People who were born poor will always be poor, and people born with wealth will always be wealthy

    3. Governemnt should be run by the will of the majority … probably in the hands of the middle and lower classes

  1. Voltaire

    1. Freedom of Speech!

    2. “I will not always agree with what you say, but I will die defending yoru right to say it.”

Theme of CHANGE!

End 6:30

Name ______________________________________ Period ____ G10 October 6, 2015

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