3. The end of the last Ice Age laid the foundation for the Agricultural Revolution by
A) breaking the land bridge that connected the Americas to Siberia.
B) creating a warmer, wetter, and more stable climate.
C) contributing to the flourishing of large mammals on which Paleolithic peoples depended.
D) leading to a sharp decline in the human population, thereby decreasing pressures on the environment.
4. Which of the following was a greater challenge to the establishment of agriculture in the Americas as compared to Eurasia?
A) The lack of rich cereal grains to domesticate in Eurasia
B) The north/south orientation of Eurasia as opposed to the east/west orientation of the Americas
C) The threat of deadly diseases caught from domesticated animals because the Americas had more domesticated animals than Eurasia
D) The lack of large mammals suitable for domestication in the Americas
5. The spread of agriculture through diffusion and migration
A) resulted in the spread of language groups.
B) always benefited the gather-hunter peoples with whom migrants came into contact.
C) resulted in the widespread dissemination of crops from New Guinea.
D) led to the decline and ultimate disappearance of pastoral societies.
6. New Guinea and eastern North America were similar in that both
A) were able to domesticate any large animals.
B) had crops that spread to other regions of Eurasia.
C) adopted their crops from other regions rather than domesticating their own.
D) developed agriculture separately and independently.
7. Crops spread more slowly in the Americas as compared to Eurasia in part because
A) of the north/south orientation of the American continents.
B) the successful domestication of large mammals by the Americans made crop domestication less important.
C) farmers in the Americas developed no grain crop that could sustain large populations.
D) farmers in the Americas were considerably less talented.
8. Which of the following distinguishes the development of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent from the development of agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa?
A) Only in the Fertile Crescent was a grain crop domesticated.
B) Only in the Fertile Crescent did humans domesticate a large mammal.
C) Only in sub-Saharan Africa did several widely scattered farming practices emerge.
D) Only the crops of sub-Saharan Africa spread far beyond the area of their original domestication.
9. Diffusion refers to the
A) taming and changing of plants and animals by humans.
B) securing of more food and resources from a smaller area of land than was possible with a gathering and hunting technology.
C) gradual spread of the techniques of agriculture, and perhaps the plants and animals themselves, without the extensive movement of agricultural people.
D) growing power of chiefdoms over agricultural villages.
10. The unique feature of the chiefdom (as compared to a stateless agricultural village) that was replicated, elaborated, and assumed to be natural in all later states and civilizations was the distinction between elite and commoner based on
11. Which of the following was a feature of the secondary products revolution that began around 4000 B.C.E.?
A) the harvesting of wool from animals.
B) the miniaturization of stone tools, including micro-blades.
C) the creation of composite tools.
D) the creation of the first dug-out canoes.
12. Pastoral societies emerged in all of the following regions except
A) the Americas.
B) sub-Saharan Africa.
C) Central Asia.
D) the Arabian Peninsula.
13. Early agricultural people
A) uniformly enjoyed a greater life expectancy than gathering and hunting peoples.
B) sometimes suffered from deadly diseases caught from domesticated animals.
C) had more leisure time than their gathering and hunting counterparts.
D) were only able to support smaller populations than their gathering and hunting counterparts.
14. Pastoral societies differed from agricultural village societies in which of the following ways?
A) Pastoral societies relied less heavily on animals.
B) Pastoral societies benefited from exchanges with agricultural societies, but agricultural societies did not benefit from exchanges with their pastoral counterparts.
C) Pastoral societies were more mobile than agricultural societies.
D) Pastoral societies never organized into powerful military confederations, whereas agricultural societies regularly organized into such confederations.
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15. Chiefdoms and agricultural village societies were similar in that
A) both social structures were based on complete equality among adults, both male and female.
B) both were based around permanent agricultural settlements.
C) neither possessed mechanisms for resolving internal disputes, but were useful for defense against outside threats.
D) both were more nomadic than pastoral societies.
16. The last Ice Age may have helped early gatherer-hunters in which of the following ways?
A) Ice served as an important preservative for food, making it possible for them to settle in the same place for extended periods.
B) The cold weather killed off most large mammals that had been predatory on early human beings.
C) Humankind had originated in cold climates and so as the glaciers advanced humans could easily move into new regions.
D) The lower sea levels associated with the Ice Age created land bridges, allowing human beings to travel to many regions of the earth.
20. An Asian-language family whose speakers gradually became the dominant culture of the Philippines, Indonesia, and the Pacific islands, thanks to their mastery of agriculture.
21. Village-based agricultural societies, usually organized by kinship groups, that functioned without a formal government apparatus.
Ans: stateless societies
22. A human society that relies on domesticated animals rather than plants as the main source of food; pastoral nomads lead their animals to seasonal grazing grounds rather than settling permanently in a single location.
Ans: pastoral society
23. A societal grouping governed by a chief who typically relies on generosity, ritual status, or charisma rather than force to win obedience from the people.
24. The gradual spread of agricultural techniques without extensive population movement.
25. The process of getting more in return for less; for example, growing more food on a smaller plot of land.