1870-1914: Age of Imperialism (one country takes control of another country). Merchants exploring and trading with a new area. Mother country would develop that area for own gain. Europe, US, and Japan were the dominant.
Types of Control
Settlement Colonies-set up by large groups of people from one country living together in a new place
Protectorate-local ruler kept title but pledged alliance to conquering country.
Countries set up spheres of influence-an area of interest for that country.
Nations believed they would be more powerful with more colonies. Large navies became important. Imperialism would lead to world conflict.
Industrialism created the need for raw materials. Countries did not want to depend on other nations, imperialism became even stronger. Nations would conquer or develop other nations for raw materials. They also sought new markets to buy, sell, and trade with.
Industrialized nations had a duty to spread Western ideas and knowledge around the world.
The White Man’s Burden
A poem by Rudyard Kiplingused to sum up western attitude towards non-westerners. It was their “burden” to impose their values and religion on other people.
Missionaries were sent all over the world to spread Christianity. They helped build schools, and many had medical training and helped established hospitals.
European Claims in North Africa: France
1830-France occupied the Muslim state of Algiers. Algerians resisted French rule for the next 60 years.
1881-France took over Tunis. Became a French protectorate. Under French control until 1956
1854-Egypt allowed French company to build the Suez Canal connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Egypt bought almost half the stock in the company putting Egypt in debt. To avoid bankruptcy, sold stock to England in 1875. England now had a direct interest in Egypt and controlled this area for decades.
The French and the English wanted control over the Sudan (Egyptian colony) on the Upper Nile River. The English wanted to build dams and control the water flow in the lower Nile.
1881-Revolution broke out in the Sudan. Muslim leader, Muhammad Ahmad, led a revolt against Egyptian rule. Called himself Al-madhi-“The Expected One.” The British invaded Sudan to put down rebellion. The British won easily.
The French also decided to get involved. Marching 3,000 miles from the Congo, France and England met at Fashoda. The French could not defeat the British and gave the Sudan to England. The became known as the Fashoda Crisis.
Europe had already carved up Africa by 1900 for economic gains: each interested European country competing for its own interests.
Major center of the slave trade. Abolished in early 1800’s, slave centers turned to others forms of trade-ivory, rubber, and palm oil. Europeans began to push inland to gain control of the sources of the products.
The French defeated Samory Toureand captured Senegal
British moved from Gold Coast and met resistance from the Ashanti. England eventually controlled all of Ashanti Territory.
Stanley wrote many newspaper articles about his adventure, gaining interest from King Leopold II of Belgium. Leopold colonized area known as the Congo. Sold rights to businesses to take raw materials. Took huge amounts of Congo’s natural rubber. Leopold used slave labor.
1908-Leopold turned colony over to Belgium government.
Europe colonized East Africa. Famine made the local tribes too weak to resist colonization.
Competition for Southern Africa
Colonization began in 1652. Dutch sailors found Cape Town-supply station to East Indies. Grew into a colony called Cape Colony. Early 1800’sthe British took it from the Dutch
When British took control, people left the colony. A massive migration-The Great Trek-occurred. Descendants of the original Dutch settlers called Boers. Spoke Afrikaan. As Boers migrated came into contact with Zulu Nation. Lead by Shaka Zulu, the Zulus held off the Boers for many years. The British joined the Boers and defeated the Zulu Nation.
Diamonds were discovered in Orange Free State and Gold in Transvaal-population rush to Southern Africa. Rhodes arrived in Cape Colony in 1870, Hoped climate would help tuberculosis. He moved to Orange Free State and within 20 years completely controlled South African diamond production. Later organized colony of Rhodesia (Zimbabwe).
1895-Rhodes sponsored a rebel group to overthrow Transvaal government. It failed
1899-Boer War broke out. British vs the Boers.
1902-British won and now mined for gold and diamonds. Boers were allowed to keep using Afrikaan and keep their farms
1910-united all Boer colonies with Cape Colony-Union of South Africa. Beginnings of Apartheid.
1868-Sumarais overthrew the Tokugawa Shoguns and returned the emperor to power. The Samurai wanted a government that resembled a more western style. Japanese were allowed to choose their type of work, and everyone required to go to school.
1899-Adopted new Constitution giving limited voting rights and setting up 2 house National Assembly called a diet. Real power lay with a small group of leaders loyal to the emperor.