Imperialism and America

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Acquiring New Lands

  • Varied opinions about ruling Puerto Rico

  • Was temporarily under military rule

  • In 1900, Congress passes Foraker Act, ending military rule and setting up self-government

  • U.S. appointed president and upper house, Puerto Ricans elected lower house

  • Puerto Ricans later gained rights to citizenship and elected both houses

  • U.S. military remains in Cuba

  • Many of the same officials stay in place, as Martí feared

  • Protestors were imprisoned or exiled

  • U.S. helps

  • Distributes food and clothing

  • Helps farmers

  • Organized schools

  • Controls disease

  • In 1900, Cuban government writes a constitution

  • U.S. insists Cubans add the Platt Amendment

  • Has four key parts

  • Cuba’s treaty-making power was limited

  • U.S. reserves right to intervene

  • Cuba could not go into debt

  • U.S. could buy/lease land for naval stations

  • Cuba adopts amendment in 1903, becomes a U.S. protectorate = a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power

  • U.S. military stays in Cuba to protect American businesses

  • Trouble in the Philippines

  • Rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo vows that Filipinos will fight for independence from U.S.

  • In Feb. 1899, Aguinaldo leads a revolt

  • U.S. spends nearly three years putting down rebellion

  • Sets up government similar to Puerto Rico in the aftermath

  • An Open Door to China

  • Philippines are seen as a gateway to the rest of Asia

  • U.S. imperialists fear China will be colonized by European powers

  • In 1899, Secretary of State John Hay issues series of policy statements

  • Speaks to foreign imperial powers

  • Proposes that they share trading rights with China

  • Statements are called the Open Door notes

  • A rebellion threatens the open door

  • In August 1900, a secret society called the Boxers lash out at foreigners in China

  • Kill hundreds of missionaries and foreigners, especially in European-dominated Chinese cities

  • International coalition puts down the Boxer Rebellion

  • John Hay issues second set of notes

  • Restates American desires to keep foreign markets open, intervene in foreign affairs in necessary

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