Imperial Rivalries in East Asia The "Open Door"

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American Imperialism

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Imperial Rivalries in East Asia

The “Open Door”

The Boxer Rebellion

  • During the 1890’s the U.S. was not the only nation to emerge as a world power.

    • Japan defeated __________________ in the first Sino-Japanese War (1894 - 1895)

    • China’s weakness enabled European powers to ______________ it.

    • Russia, Germany, France, and Great Britain established spheres of influence in China by the end of the century.

      • Sphere of influence: an area where a foreign nation controlled _______________________ development.

  • Twice, the _______________________ asked the American government to join them in preserving the territorial integrity of China against further imperialist actions.

    • Senate rejected the requests because it risked an entangling _______________________ in a region where the U.S. as yet had no strategic investment.

  • The American outlook toward Asia changed with the defeat of _____________________ and the acquisition of the ___________________________.

    • decided to act alone instead of jointly with Britain.

  • Secretary of State __________________________________ Open Door Note, 1899

    • sent to his European counterparts

    • proposed to keep China open to __________________ with all countries on an ____________________ basis.

    • called upon foreign powers within their spheres of influence to:

      • refrain from interfering with any ______________ port (a port open to all by treaty) or any vested interest

      • permit Chinese authorities to collect ___________ on an equal basis

      • show no favors to their own nationals in the matter of harbor _______________ or railroad charges

    • none of the European powers, except _______________, accepted Hay’s principles

  • While foreign countries debated over access to China’s market, secret Chinese societies organized to fight __________________ control and influence.

    • The Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists

      • known to westerners as the __________________

Results of the Boxer Rebellion

Big Stick Diplomacy

Was President Roosevelt correct in his belief that a strong military presence promoted global peace?

Balancing Power in East Asia

      • decided to ______________________ both the “foreign devils” and their Chinese Christian converts, whom they believed were corrupting Chinese society.

  • The Boxers and some Chinese troops attacked foreign __________________________ in Beijing and Tianjin, killing more than 200 foreigners, including many Christian missionaries

    • German ____________________________ was killed

    • _____ nations intervened

      • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the U.S.

      • rescued the foreigners and ended the rebellion

  • John Hay worked with British diplomats to persuade the other powers not to ___________________________ China

  • Second set of Open Door notes

    • convinced the participating powers to accept ____________________________________ from China for damages caused by the rebellion.

  • European powers agreed not to break up China into European-controlled _________________________________

  • U.S. retained access to China’s ____________________________

  • President McKinley was re-elected in 1900, but was __________________________________

  • September 1901 - ______ Theodore Roosevelt assumed the Presidency

  • Roosevelt favored ________________________________ U.S. power and believed that the U.S. had a __________________ to shape the “less civilized” corners of the Earth.

  • President Roosevelt ______________________________ the Open Door policy in China and worked to prevent any nation from controlling _______________________ there.

    • helped negotiate a _____________________________ to the Russo-Japanese War between _________________ and _________________________ that had begun in 1904

    • sponsored a ___________________ conference in Portsmouth, New Hampshire

    • Treaty of _________________________________ was signed on September 5, 1905

      • all concessions went to ___________________

      • raised doubts among American leaders about the ____________________________ of the Philippines

  • Roosevelt and ___________________ met with the Japanese foreign minister in Tokyo

The Panama Canal

Geography and the Canal

    • negotiated the _________________________________ Agreement in July 1905 in which the U.S. accepted Japanese control of ______________________ and Japan disavowed any designs on the ____________________________________

  • Behind all the diplomacy there was mutual _________________

  • Roosevelt believed that having a canal through ______________________________________________ was vital to U.S. power in the world and would save time and money for commercial and military __________________________

  • 1889 - a _____________________ company abandoned its efforts to build a canal in Panama

  • 1902 - Congress authorized the __________________________ of the French company’s assets and the construction of a canal

  • Panama was a province of __________________________ at the time

  • 1903 - U.S. offered Colombia a large sum of money and yearly rent for the right to ____________________ the canal and to __________________________ a narrow strip of land on either side of it.

    • Colombia _____________________________

    • Tension between Colombians and Panamanians increased

      • Panamanians ________________________ Colombian rule

    • The French company was worried that the U.S. might back out of the deal

      • met with Panamanian officials and together they decided to make a ____________________ with the U.S.

  • November 1903 - with U.S. _______________________ offshore, Panama __________________________ against Colombia

    • within days, the U.S. recognized Panama’s independence and the two nations signed a treaty that allowed the canal to be built.

  • Before the canal opened, ships sailing from New York to San Francisco traveled over ________________________ miles around the tip of South America

    • after it opened the trip was only ___________________ miles and could be completed in _____________ the time

  • Engineers built a series of lakes and concrete locks to raise and lower ships as they traveled the _____________________ canal

  • During construction workers contracted ___________________ and ___________________________________ from mosquitoes

The Roosevelt Corollary

Dollar Diplomacy

    • Surgeon General of the U.S. Army, ____________________________________________ helped minimize the disease by inspecting and controlling all potential breeding places of mosquitoes

  • By early 1900’s, American officials were concerned about large __________________ that Latin American nations owed _________________________________ banks.

      • Britain, Germany and Italy ____________________Venezuelan ports

      • crisis was resolved peacefully after the U.S. ____________________________ both sides to reach an agreement

  • Roosevelt addressed Congress and stated what became known as the Roosevelt Corollary to the ____________________________

    • the U.S. would intervene in Latin American affairs when necessary to maintain _____________________ and _____________________________ stability in the _________________________________ Hemisphere

    • Goal: to prevent European powers from using the debt problems of Latin America to justify _________________________________ in the region.

  • First applied the corollary in the ___________________________

    • had fallen behind on its debt payments to European nations

    • 1905 - _______________ began collecting customs tariffs in the Dominican Republic, using the __________________________________ as its agent.

  • William Howard Taft placed less emphasis on ________________ force and more on __________________________ development

    • believed that supporting Latin American industry would increase ____________ and _____________for American businesses and lift Latin American countries out of poverty and social disorder

  • Worked to replace _______________________ loans with loans from __________________________ banks

    • 1911 - American bankers began making loans to Nicaragua to support is shaky ____________________

      • 1912 - civil unrest forced Nicaragua’s president to ask for greater _______________________

      • U.S. ______________________ entered Nicaragua, replaced the customs collector with an American agent, and formed a committee to control the _______________ commissions.

Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy in Mexico

Wilson Sends troops to Mexico

      • U.S. troops supported the government and customs until ____________________

  • Porfirio Diaz had ruled Mexico for more than 30 years as a ______________________

    • 1910 - Mexican revolution began

    • 1913 - General ________________________________ seized power after the murder of __________________________________________, a Mexican reformer who supported democracy, constitutional government, and land reform

  • Huerta’s _______________________ repulsed Wilson, who refused to recognize the new government

    • Wilson announced a new policy

    • To win U.S. recognition, groups that seized power in Latin America would have to establish government based on ___________________, not on force

    • Wilson believed that without U.S. support, Huerto would be ______________________________ soon

    • Wilson also ordered the navy to intercept ____________ shipments to Huerta’s government and permitted Americans to arm Huerta’s ___________________________

  • April 1914 - American sailors visiting Tampico, Mexico were _______________________ after entering a restricted area

    • after their release, their commander demanded an ______________________

    • Mexico ___________________________

  • Wilson saw the refusal as an opportunity to _________________________________ Huerta

    • soon after congressional approval, Wilson learned that a ________________________ ship was unloading __________________________ at the Mexican port of Veracruz

  • Wilson ordered American warships to Veracruz, where U.S. Marines forcibly ___________________________ the city

    • anti-American _____________________ broke out

    • _______________________________, whose forces had acquired arms from the United States, became Mexico’s president.

  • Mexican forces __________________________ to Carranza conducted raids into the U.S. hoping to force Wilson to intervene

    • March 1916 - _____________________________ and a group of guerrillas burned the town of Columbus, ______________________________, killing 17 Americans

    • Wilson sent ___________ troops under General John J. Pershing across the border to find and capture Villa

      • they were not successful

  • Wilson’s policy _______________________ U.S. foreign relations

    • _____________________ ridiculed the president’s attempt to “shoot” the Mexicans into self-government

    • Latin Americans regarded his “________________________________________” as no improvement over Teddy Roosevelt’s “big stick” diplomacy

  • 1914 - Wilson followed Roosevelt’s example in the _______________________________

    • negotiated exclusive rights for naval bases and a canal with _________________________________

  • 1915 - sent the Marines into ___________________ to put down a rebellion.

  • 1916 - sent troops into the ______________________________ to set up a government he hoped would be more stable and ________________________________ than the current regime.

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