Immigration and Natural Increase

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Amanda Goncalves

Chapter 3 KTs - p. 66-90

Immigration and Natural Increase - A short while after migrating to North America, Europeans and Africans outnumber the original native Americans
Indentured servitude - Young men and women bound themselves to masters for a certain amount of years - they’d obviously work for them and their masters would compensate their work with shelter, food, and guidance; It was one of the major ways the Europeans had to cope with the labor shortage in America; This form of labor was only really popular up until the 1670s
Birth and Death - When they 1st arrived at the colonies there were many deaths due to failure in colonizing the areas, but after a while conditions improved enough so that
Exceptional Longevity in New England - The life span of many of the colonists (both men and women) in New England increased during the second half of the 17th century, a fact that historians debate about; it could’ve been due to sanitary conditions, climate, etc
More Balanced Sex Ratio - More women arrived at the colonies = natural increase in population = more equal male to female ratio (late 1600s)
Medicine in the Colonies - many women died due to the lack of knowledge physicians in the 17th-18th century had about possible infection and sterilization; communities would also easily catch diseases by coming into contact with unclean water or garbage

- The most common medical treatments in America were purging, expulsion, and bleeding (they tried to get whatever liquid they thought was harming your body out)

Midwives - women who would help mothers during childbirth and would act similar to female doctors (they’d help and give health advice to neighbors and family members)
Women and Families in the Chesapeake - they had a life consumed with childbearing, they married at very young ages and though in England males had strict authority over every aspect of their families’ lives, it wasn’t the same for them in the Chesapeake; women were harshly punished for getting pregnant before their indentured servitude time was up, and would often die early or lose their children (most of whom would die in infancy or early childhood)
Greater Independence in the South - because there were more men and less women, women had the opportunity to choose their husbands (there was also rarely ever a dominant male figure dictating their decisions like in New England)

- By late 17th century there was a revival of patriarchy in the Chesapeake + women lost a lot of their power because there was a more balanced sex ratio

Women and Families in New England - dominated by the male head of the family; their lives were terrible: they’d marry young and just have lots of children well into their 30’s

- increased longevity meant: parents would live to see their children’s children mature

The Patriarchal Puritan Family - their religion strengthened the notion that men were the absolute authority + that women had to be weak and submissive, even despite their essential roles in the NE agricultural economy (had children who grew up to be workers would work in the fields themselves)
Middle Passage - part of the Triangular Trade route; ships would sail from the coast of Africa to America with a vessel full of African slaves (often too many for a single boat) and they’d be kept chained there for extremely long periods of time in cramped, unsanitary spaces
Growing Slave Population - when trade became open to English and colonial merchants (mid-1690s) the prices for slaves decreased = more slaves being transported to America faster
Slave Codes - laws made by the colonists on America to limit the rights of Africans and to establish white people as their masters
Huguenots = French Calvinists Pennsylvania Dutch - German Protestants

- Both groups left their homelands to search for more religious tolerance as well as to escape wars going on in there own countries

Scotts-Irish Scottish Presbyterians who had settled in northern Ireland, specifically in the province of Ulster (early 17th century) Many began migrating to America also for religious tolerance and to escape prejudice (from the English)
Colonial Economies - mainly depended on farming; a few areas in the West did depend on fur and skin trading w/Natives though (17-18th centuries)
Southern Economy - Chesapeake region: tobacco; South Carolina + Georgia = rice

- slaves were not just better workers, but were more resistant to diseases they could catch out in the fields or swamps

Northern Economical and Technological Life - NY, PA, Connecticut River Valley= main suppliers of wheat to the colonies; they crops grown there were more diverse b/c the soil and temperatures were so different

- there were many artisans + craftspeople as well: blacksmiths, cobblers, riflemakers, silversmiths, shipbuilders, cabinetmakers, printers, milling lumber, processing cloth

Saugus Ironworks­ - metals industry in the colonies; 1st one of its kind; ran on water

Technological success = financial failure

Extractive Industries - took away from the Earth’s natural resources: lumbering, mining, fishing
Myth of Self-Sufficiency - the idea that most colonists grew their own food, made their own clothes, and bought little from an markets
Shortage of Currency - colonial commerce; had many different types of paper money (not many coins), tobacco certificates, land certificates
Triangular Trade - (received: examples) West Indies (rum, crops, meat, fish) Colonies (sugar molasses slaves) NEAfrica West Indies
Emerging Merchant Class - Boston, New York, Philadelphia
Growing Consumerism = “increasing division of American societies by class“; people were interested in having material possessions and having it get their social status as well; they basically tried very hard to show off to prove that they were high ranked

-social consequences = luxuries became necessities b/c they were easily available (tea, glassware, crockery, furniture)
Vagaries of the Plantation Economy - farmers obviously couldn’t control their markets, so it was pretty unpredictable; up and down
Stratifies Southern Society - large landowners (top) with a couple dozen slaves small farmers w/only a few slaves to help
Slave Culture - language, religion (a mix: Christianity + African folklore); tried to establish stable families but it didn’t work out much of the time
Stono Rebellion - Aouth Carolina 1739; 100 Africans rebelled stole weapons, killed white people, and later tried to escape to Florida; they were later caught and executed by white people
Puritan Community Patterns of settlement

Made up of towns: each specific town had an agreement with each other: to retain unity and peace through religious and social commitment

Puritan Democracy - they held town meeting to discuss issues/conflicts; only white men participated in a select governing group for the town
Population pressure - Colonists move farther away from town centers after large amounts of people would move in; they’d establish new towns elsewhere
Generational Conflict - ?
Salem Witch Trials - Salem, MA; young girls accused a few West Indian servants of practicing witchcraft; they produced so much hysteria + confusion + paranoia that it spread through many towns in colonial America; unfortunately many women afterwards were accused and executed on witchcraft accusations

- in the end the original girls admitted to having made the whole thing up

Growth of Colonial Cities - their cities = like modern day towns (18th century) biggest ports Philadelphia (28,000) and New York (25,000) during the 1770s
Commercial and Cultural Importance = cities; contained industries and distilleries (made molasses into rum), advanced schools, shops; were communities with urban social problems like today: crime, pollution, diseases/epidemics, traffi

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