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Protestant Reformers






Martin Luther;

Eisleben, Germany

95 Theses; Freedom of a Christian; Bondage of the Will; Smaller and Larger Catechisms

Sparked the Reformation by protesting against indulgences. Taught man is saved by faith alone and in the authority of scripture alone.

Ulrich Zwingli

Jan. 1, 1484
Wildhaus, Switzerland

On True and False Religion; 67 Conclusions; Concerning Freedom and Choice of Food; The Clarity and Certainty of the Word of God

Introduced reformation ideas to Zurich and throughout Switzerland. Said nothing should be believed or practiced that is not in the Bible, including most of the sacraments.

Thomas Cranmer

Nottinghamshire, England

first and second Book of Common Prayer; Thirty-Nine Articles

Played large role in English Reformation, first leader of the Church of England. Involved in Henry VIII's divorce; was burned at the stake under Queen Mary after recanting his recantation.

Thomas Cromwell

c. 1485



Supervised Henry VIII’s divorce from Catherine of Aragon, England’s break from Rome, and dissolution of the English monasteries. Attempted marriage alliance between Henry VIII and German Lutherans.

John Calvin


Institutes of the Christian Religion

Led the Christian community in Geneva, Switzerland; developed doctrine of sovereignty and absolute authority of God; Believed in Predestination: the doctrine that God alone chooses (elects) who is saved.

John Knox

c. 1514
Haddington, Scotland

The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women; History of the Reformation of Religion in Scotland

Went to Geneva in 1553, influenced by Calvin. Returned to Scotland in 1559 and led Scottish Reformation and rebellion against the Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots

Name # Class Period Date

Protestant Reformers Questions

Directions: Use the information in the chart below to answer the questions below.

  1. Name the different countries in which these reformers practiced (Hints: there are four total; for John Calvin it is NOT the country of his birth).

  2. What belief do Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Ulrich Zwingli have in common about the Bible?

  3. What seems to be the goals in the reforms of Thomas Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell?

  4. What is Predestination? What impact might such a belief have on the people who believe it?

  5. By whom was John Knox most influenced and how did his (Knox’s) reforms impact Scotland’s government?

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