(See Section 1 of the current Nomination Form and Section 1, 2 and 3 of the original Nomination Forms)
1a) State Party:
1b) Name of World Heritage property:
1c) Please provide geographical coordinates for the site to the nearest second. (In the case of large sites, please give three sets of geographical coordinates.)
Geographical coordinate: NW 17 723190 4210890
Geographical coordinate: NE 17 727710 4210520
Geographical coordinate: SE 17 726040 4206690
Geographical coordinate: SW 17 722830 4209540
1d) Give date of inscription on the World Heritage List. date (dd/mm/yyyy): 11/12/1987
1e) Give date of subsequent extension(s), if any.:
1f) List organization(s) responsible for the preparation of this site report..
Monticello, P.O. Box 316
University of Virginia
Interim Curator for the Academical Village
575 Alderman Road
II.2 Statement of Significance (see Section 2 of the current Nomination Form and Section 5 of the original Form)
2a) When a State Party nominates a property for inscription on the World Heritage List, it describes the heritage values of the property which it believes justifies the inscription of the property on the World Heritage List. Please summarize the justification for inscription as it appears in the original nomination of the property.
The Thomas Jefferson Thematic Nomination, consisting of Monticello and the Jeffersonian Precinct (synonomously referred to as the Academical Village) of the University of Virginia, is proposed for inscription on the World Heritage list under three criteria: (I) as a unique artistic achievement, a masterpiece of creative genius; (IV) as an outstanding example of a type of a building or architectural ensemble which illustrates a significant stage in history; and (VI) because Monticello and the University of Virginia are directly and tangibly associated with ideas, beliefs, and events of outstanding universal significance.
Of all Jefferson's architectural creations, Monticello and his original plans for the University of Virginia best represent the fullness of his architectural genius. Each is a telling example of his views on neoclassicism, his ideal of a Roman villa in a pastoral setting, and the need to reconcile architectural form with utility. Both properties commanded the attention of the international community. Impressions of them have been recorded in numerous publications during and after Jefferson's lifetime.
Although located far from the sophisticated cities of Europe or those of the Eastern seaboard of America, Monticello and the University of Virginia represent Jefferson's efforts to produce architecture that would rise above the provincialism of most American buildings, win the respect and admiration of the world, and serve as models for the edification of future architects. With these buildings, he succeeded in producing architectural landmarks that not only won the praise of scholars and observers but also are celebrated by the architectural profession as among the country's proudest architectural achievements.
Charlottesville, Virginia, is the location for both properties. The hill overlooking Jefferson's boyhood home at Shadwell and the town served as the location for Jefferson's house. When the University of Virginia was planned by Jefferson, he arranged for it to be located in Charlottesville, close to his home, which he viewed as a healthier location than the older Tidewater area. The proximity of the University of Virginia to Monticello also allowed him to oversee, in minute detail, its construction according to his designs. He was, therefore, able to impress upon the University the full force of his principles and taste, as he was with Monticello. This level of involvement was not equalled in his other major public buildings projects or major residences in Virginia, with the exception of his small retreat, Poplar Forest.
The relationship and interdependence of the two properties is recorded by Philip Alexander Bruce, who in his History of the University of Virginia (1920) wrote:
“Not since the completion of Monticello had he possessed such an opportunity to show his extraordinary aptitude for architecture, without being trammeled by others. In his designs for the Capitol at Richmond, and public edifices in Washington and private residences in Virginia, there was always someone with the power to modify or push aside his recommendations. In this new field, he was quite as unhampered as he was in constructing his own house.”
Monticello and the University of Virginia are also two Jefferson properties which retain a high level of structural and artistic integrity. They fully convey an authentic picture of Jefferson's original concepts, unlike properties such as the State Capitol of Virginia, which lacks the same level of involvement by Jefferson and which has been much altered from its original design. The high level of integrity for the two properties is remarkable considering the lack of scholarly curatorship of Monticello before 1923 and the continuous use of the University of Virginia for academic purposes since 1825. Although Monticello receives more than half a million visitors each year, and the University's Rotunda suffered a major fire in 1895, both retain their essential Jeffersonian form such that they serve as destinations for architectural pilgrimages undertaken by visitors from around the world.
2b) At the time of initial inscription of a property on the World Heritage List, the World Heritage Committee indicates the property's outstanding universal value(s) (or World Heritage value(s)) by agreeing on the criteria for which the property deserves to be included on the World Heritage List. Please consult the report of the World Heritage Committee meeting when the property was listed and indicate the criteria for which the Committee inscribed the property on the World Heritage List. (Choose one or more boxes.) Cultural Criteria
vi vi Natural Criteria
2c) At the time of initial inscription, did the World Heritage Committee agree upon a Statement of Significance for the WHS? (Consult the report or minutes of the World Heritage Committee meeting when the property was listed..)
2c1) If YES, please cite it here. 2c2) If NO please propose a Statement of Significance for the World Heritage Site based on the consideration given the property by the Committee when it inscribed the property on the World Heritage List. (Note: Following the completion of the Periodic Report exercise, the State Party, in consultation with appropriate authorities, will determine whether to proceed with seeking a Committee decision to approve any proposed Statement of Significance. The Committee must approve any proposed Statement of Significance through a separate, formal process. See 7g.) CRITERION I: A unique artistic achievement, a masterpiece of creative
The first design for Monticello, completed about 1769, resulted in a building that reflected Jefferson's ideas about architecture derived from books. The reflection in the house of the creator's genius was an aspect of its uniqueness.
Completed in 1809, the second Monticello embraced Jefferson's first hand studies of architecture in Europe and his adaptation of this knowledge to the requirements of living. In 1796, as the remodeling of the house was taking shape, Monticello was visited by the French exile Duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt who viewed the new design as fully comparable with like houses in Europe.
University of Virginia: Jeffersonian Precinct
The University of Virginia has drawn praise for its sheer beauty and for its representation as a unique adaptation of a Roman villa form to a community of scholars.
The original section of the University of Virginia was completed in 1825, just a year before Thomas Jefferson's death. Therefore, unlike Monticello, the ensemble did not attract as many notable visitors on their way to see both the man and his architectural creation. Rather, the complex generally has been cited by late nineteenth century and twentieth century observers as tangible display of Jefferson’s architectural genius.
CRITERION IV: An outstanding example of a building or architectural ensemble which illustrates a significant stage in history.
Thomas Jefferson's architecture was part of a movement in Europe that adapted the forms and details of classical architecture to contemporary buildings. Neoclassicism was a movement that attracted the intellectual elite of Europe which studied literature, philosophy, and languages of antiquity. The neoclassical era in Europe covers a major portion of the eighteenth century, from the 1730s to the end of the century.
Jefferson joined in this revivalist spirit as no other American did before him. Monticello and the University of Virginia are two outstanding architectural compositions that are part of the international neoclassical movement. They represent the two approaches Jefferson made toward neoclassicism, from a looser adaptation with Monticello to a stricter interpretation with the University of Virginia. Both manifested a combination of ideas from a variety of sources adapted to be uniquely Jeffersonian.
As created by Jefferson, life at Monticello was similar to that of Roman villa life where the ruling families lived in luxurious mansions and partook of the intellectual and physical pleasures of the bucolic grounds. However, Monticello's floor plan was more informal than that of the typical Roman villa or neoclassical structure. In designing his house, Jefferson was as motivated to recreate a neoclassical monument as he was to provide for convenience of living. The house as completed represents his reconciliation of convenience with classical forms.
The pastoral ideal underscored by Monticello was also exemplified by the academical village of the University of Virginia where students and professors were removed from the decadence of urban life. It resembles more closely a Roman villa than any other type of architecture, with a loose connection of porticos and buildings spread out on open country.
The supreme qualities of the University of Virginia were cited by historians. The foremost scholar of Jefferson's architecture, Fiske Kimball,wrote:
“Its separate housing of departments, its independent library building, its covered connecting passages, as well as its monumental plan, were new in an American university, and, in their combination, almost entirely novel abroad.”
CRITERION VI: Directly and tangibly associated with ideas, beliefs, and events of outstanding universal significance.
Thomas Jefferson's architecture grew out of his lifelong involvement with ancient languages, literature, history, and philosophy. His architecture reflected his high regard for the classical civilizations of Rome and Greece and was part of the classical trend that swept through Europe in the eighteenth century. To him, the neoclassical movement was more than a trend. It offered lessons for the ages.
Jefferson's taste in architecture far transcended notions about beauty or style. It also serves as a compelling expression of his hopes for the new nation--that it would be noble and free from the traditions of the Old World; that it would offer infinite possibilities to the common man; and, that it would serve as a beacon for freedom and self-determination for the world. As much as the Declaration of Independence and Jefferson's other political and literary works, his architecture is symbolic of his universal hopes for the new nation and for the world's humanity.
2d) Since the original inscription of the property on the World Heritage List, has the World Heritage Committee agreed with a proposal by the State Party that the property be recognized for additional World Heritage values and added additional criteria to the inscription as a result of a re-nomination and/or extension of the property? 2d1) If YES, please indicate which new criteria were added and the date. (dd/mm/yyyy)