Nations that establish colonies through exploration grow wealthy with raw materials; beginning of mercantilism
Christian humanists like Erasmus and Sir Thomas More address improvements in society through Christian motives, but with less emphasis on religious ceremony
Corruption in the Catholic church through simony, the sales of indulgences, and the worldly lifestyles of the clergy
Explain -- POLITICAL, INTELLECTUAL, ARTISTIC, ECONOMIC, AND RELIGIOUS IMPACT OF THE REFORMATION
Europe becomes politically fragmented along religious lines and nations align themselves as either Catholic or Protestant
Spain and France – Catholic
England – Protestant
Holy Roman Empire – Catholic with some of the northern principalities being Protestant under the Peace of Augsburg
Holy Roman Empire began to weaken as it struggled to maintain its power
Henry VIII establishes a protestant nation in England with the king as head of the Anglican Church. Act of Supremacy of 1534 gives Henry VIII legal sovereignty of civil laws over the laws of the Church of England.
Puritan revolt against the Anglican Church leads to civil war in England.
The state began to supersede the powers of the clergy.
Lutheranism expanded educational opportunities for both men and women.
Invention of the printing press spreads religious ideas to different parts of Europe
Rising sense of individualism as people sought to create a better life for themselves
Protestant ideas shown in the artwork of the Northern Europeans
Protestant emphasis on the individual’s personal relationship with God was reflected in the number of common people and day-to-day scenes that were depicted in art.
Iconic images of Christ and scenes from the Passion became less frequent, as did portrayals of the saints and clergy. Narrative scenes from the Bible, and, later, moralistic depictions of modern life were preferred.
Growth of economic powers for the middle class
New economic model of capitalism began to take shape
Unity in Europe as a Christian society was shattered by the different conflicts that erupted between Protestants and Catholics
Catholic Counter – Reformation is a response to the Protestant Reformation
Vernacular translations of scriptures allowed ordinary people to read the Bible and explore the truths of God for themselves.
Protestantism gave people a new sense of coming to God without the intervention of the Church and priests.
Persecution of perceived heretics in both the Catholic and Protestant churches
Political – trade in slaves promoted warfare between African states; European weapons (guns) become an important component of political power; Europeans control very little territory in Africa
Economic – Atlantic slave trade increased demand for African slaves by Europeans; volume of trade increased; trade patterns shifted to west coast; demand for European manufactured goods (guns)
Cultural – introduction of Christianity to west Africa; African artists created products for European markets
Technological – gunpowder guns
Increase in the African populations, both directly from Africa and those who were subsequently born in the Americas and Caribbean
The dispersal of Africans throughout the New World is directly related to slavery, as they were forced to go wherever labor was demanded.
British colonies, in what is now the southern United States, depend on slave labor for production of cash crops
Knowledge of agriculture, including rice that spread into the Southern colonies
Aspects of African food, music, and art leave a lasting influence on American cultures
Explain -- IMPACT OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE ON EASTERN EUROPE AND GLOBAL TRADE
Constantinople conquered in 1453 and renamed Istanbul
Suleiman’s advances into Hungary and Austria in 1525, but expansion stopped with the Siege of Vienna in 1529
Caravanseri (roadside inns) network – assured safety for traveling merchants and envoys
Naval trade in spices, wheat, and lumber throughout the Mediterranean, Aegean, Black and Red Seas, and the Persian Gulf
Explain -- MING CHINA’S IMPACT ON GLOBAL TRADE
Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
Impact of voyages:
Expeditions to Southeast Asia, India, Arabia, and East Africa
Goals – Impress world with the power and splendor of Ming China and expand China’s tribute system
Envoys from different countries travel to China with tribute
Voyages end after Chinese scholar – Officials complain of financial waste
China withdraws into isolation
Explain -- NEW ECONOMIC FACTORS AND PRINCIPLES CONTRIBUTING TO THE SUCCESS OF THE COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION IN EUROPE
Commercial Revolution – new business and trade practices brought about in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries
New wealth brought from colonies in the Americas
Maritime innovations such as galleons and sextants increase overseas trade and voyages of exploration
Rise of capitalism – private ownership and investment of wealth for profit lead to the growth of the merchant class and an increase of the money supply.
Joint-stock companies (Jamestown, Virginia) – investors pooled their money together to establish American colonies and usually faced minimal monetary losses because of the large number involved in the investment.
Mercantilism – colonies provided gold and silver (bullionism), as well as a favorable balance of trade, since they were both suppliers of raw materials and markets to their mother countries
Establishment of new institutions such as banks, stock exchanges, insurance companies, and futures markets
Locate --PLACES, REGIONS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO MAJOR ERAS AND TURNING POINTS
Renaissance and Reformation: Italy, Rome, Florence
Age of Exploration – Spain, Portugal, Cape of Good Hope, Spice Islands, The Middle Passage
Absolute Monarchies in Europe: Prussia, Nantes, Paris, Versailles, St. Petersburg
Imperialism – Africa, Belgian Congo, Nigeria, South Africa, French West Africa, Dutch East Indies, French Indochina, India
Analyze -- EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS
Trade in the Indian Ocean:
European voyages of exploration bring spices from the East Indies and contribute to the Commercial Revolution in Europe
Identify --RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE
Including, but not limited to:
Examples of religious influence during the Renaissance including:
The relationship between politics and religion became strained
The political influence of the Catholic Church weakened
Describe --INFLUENCES OF WOMEN IN WORLD HISTORY
Elizabeth I (1533-1603) – Queen of England who restored Protestantism and defeated the Spanish Armada, which solidified England as a major naval power
Explain -- RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHRISTIANITY, INDIVIDUALISM, AND GROWING SECULARISM AND HOW THIS INFLUENCED SUBSEQUENT POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS
Including, but not limited to:
Beginning of Humanism during the Renaissance – renewed interest in the Classical Greek and Roman texts that focus on human potential and achievements that do not necessarily align with Church teachings
Humanist movement promotes secularism, where a more worldly view of society is taken
Rebirth of individualism, which the Church had considered to be arrogant, sinful, and rebellious
Expansion of trade and growth of prosperity and luxury generates greater interest in worldly pleasures including clothing, food, music, and art
Uniform points of view from the Church no longer were pervasive; the here and now is more important than the supernatural and the afterlife
Mathematics – 260 day religious calendar, concept of zero
Architectural engineering – elaborate pyramids, temples, and ball courts
Astronomy and Mathematics – ceremonial calendar
Architectural engineering – Tenochtitlan designed as a planned city constructed on an island with raised causeways to the mainland; aqueducts to bring fresh water to the city; elaborate temples, palaces, and pyramids
Astronomy – two separate calendars for the day and night
Mathematics – accounting device known as a quipu (knotted strings); decimal system incorporated in system of governing
Architectural engineering – elaborate temples and palaces Machu Picchu, extensive road system, uniform system of architecture for government buildings in the empire
Explain -- IMPACT OF PRINTING PRESS ON THE RENAISSANCE AND REFORMATION
Printing press invented by Johannes Gutenberg in 1455
Renaissance – printers could mass-produce copies of books at one time. Books were now cheap enough so that larger numbers of people could buy them. Travel books and medical journals spread new ideas and led to the Scientific Revolution. Literacy rose as more people began to read. Printing in vernacular languages made it easier for people who did not have a classical education to read.
Reformation – printing the Bible in vernacular languages led larger numbers of people to interpret it for themselves. This led to greater criticism of the Church and a call for reform.
Explain -- DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES
Examine -- SOURCES TO ANALYZE FRAME OF REFERENCE, HISTORICAL CONTEXT, AND POINT OF VIEW