A. Emerging Factions in American Politics
1. Federalists in the Northeast began to plan to secede from the United States.
a) The Essex Junto
2. Divisions appeared also among the Republicans.
a) The Yazoo controversy
3. Aaron Burr caused the Republicans considerable discomfort.
a) Killed Hamilton in a duel
B. The Problem of American Neutrality
1. Renewed warfare in Europe led to American prosperity between 1803 and 1807.
2. America was neutral in the war, but faced pressure from the warring powers.
a) Berlin Decree
b) Britain’s Orders in Council
C. Economic Warfare
1. Efforts by the Europeans to enforce their policies led to tension with the United States.
a) Milan Decree
2. To preserve neutrality, Jefferson decided to embargo all trade with Europe.
II. Crises in the Nation
A. Economic Depression
1. The embargo caused a severe depression.
B. Political Upheaval
1. Madison’s easy victory for the presidency disguised divisions in the nation.
a) Tertium Quids
2. Republican strength increased in the congressional elections two years later.
a) They wanted war.
C. The Rise of the Shawnee Prophet
1. A key reason for War Hawk militancy was the unsettled conditions along the western frontier.
a) The Prophet first preached nonviolence but later advocated resistance.
D. Prophecy and Politics in the West
1. Tecumseh began to organize frontier Indians to end white expansion.
a) Americans charged that he and the Prophet (his brother) were British agents.
2. Westerners began to advocate war with Britain.
a) War would provide an excuse for breaking up emerging Indian confederations.
b) War would make it possible to seize Canada and to secure American control of the Northwest Territory.
c) Frontiersmen blamed England for the depression of 1808.
E. Choosing War
1. Macon’s Bill No. 2
2. Developments in the West increased pressure for war with Britain.
a) Fort Wayne Treaty proposal
b) Battle of Tippecanoe
3. Congress declared war on Britain.
III. The Nation at War
A. The Fighting Begins
1. The naval war was more successful.
2. The Election of 1812 reflected misgivings about the war.
B. The War Continues
1. America scored victories on Lake Erie.
2. In the North, the two sides harassed each other.
3. War erupted in the South with part of the Creek Nation.
a) The Red Stick faction
4. The British seized control of the Atlantic.
C. The Politics of War
1. Negotiations with the British began at the end of 1813.
2. Congress took action to strengthen the army and to raise money.
a) Congress authorized a loan and new treasury notes.
3. Congress enacted the Embargo of 1813.
a) The ban on all trade affected the economies of all states.
D. New British Offensives
1. France’s defeat led to a British buildup in North America.
2. The British began a three-pronged offensive.
3. Andrew Jackson undertook the defense of the Gulf Coast.
a) New Orleans
E. The War’s Strange Conclusion
1. Treaty merely ended the war and restored diplomatic relations.
IV. Peace and the Rise of New Expectations
A. New Expectations in the Northeastern Economy
1. The spread of textile manufacturing during the embargo and war eras was astonishing.
2. Factories in New England
B. New Opportunities in the West
1. One of the designs behind the exploratory expeditions had been to gain entry for the United States into the burgeoning economy, most notably the fur trade, in the continent’s interior.
2. But American westward expansion posed a terrible threat to Native Americans.
3. Collaboration between the United States and the Native Americans helped to prevent renewed warfare, but at an enormous cost to the Indians.
C. A Revolution in the Southern Economy
1. The technological and economic changes that came in the war’s wake pumped new energy into the South’s economy.
a) Mechanization of the British textile industry in the late eighteenth century
b) Cotton cloth and raw cotton fiber
2. Eli Whitney found a solution to the problem of the time and labor required for cotton production.
D. Reviving and Reinventing Slavery
1. Many southerners began to question the use of slaves as early as the 1780s.
2. Some southern leaders advocated abolishing slavery and transporting freed blacks back to Africa.
3. As a result of the booming southern economy after the War of 1812, African American slavery expanded as never before.
4. Specialized manufacturing in the North and large-scale commercial food production in the West permitted an intensified cotton industry in the South.