World dominated by Western civilizations as a result of the Industrial Revolution & technologies achieved from it.
Populations moved urban->rural & non-industrialized->industrialized. Urbanization increased.
Environment changed by industrialization and population growth.
Democracy spread based on Enlightenment ideals. British Parliamentary democracy was popular, and absolutism.
Revolutionary movements spawned in North America, Latin America, and France.
Economic inequality increased with European dominance of most major world markets.
New Imperialism – Europeans used their economic and tech power to reshape regions culturally and politically.
Growth of nationalism in certain regions spurred on movements for independence (E. EUR., Latin Am., Egypt).
Civilization experienced change and expanded in the following areas:
Africa – Egypt & Ethiopia only bright spots for AFR as EUR carves up the continent by 1885.
10 mil. AFRs enslaved 1550-1800 (8 mil -> Western Hem.; 2 mil -> SWAsia/N.AFR)
~1800 = Slave trade banned. Denmark, GB, US. (slavery still went on! Trade just ended!)
~1840 = Slavery AND International Slave trade done for in most of EUR. GB began patrolling W.AFR coast to arrest illegal exporting of slaves -> Slave trade moves to E.AFR coast.
1867 = Transatlantic slave trade finally ends. AFR began exporting more gold, ivory, palm oil
Southern Africa – Clash between British and Dutch colonists and interests.
1818-1880 = Zulu. Natives. Militaristic. Captured men sent into Zulu army. Defeated by British, lands split into Northern/Southern Rhodesia (now Zambia/Zimbabwe)
1860s = Diamonds discovered, Europeans want in.
1899-1902 = Boer Wars. GB v Afrikaners (Dutch colonists in S.AFR since 1652). GB = in S.AFR since 1795. GB wanted total conquest of S.AFR & defeat Dutch Afrikaners. GB then delegated power to EUR settlers in S.AFR to administer govt.
Native Land Act 1913 = Natives sent to reservations. Segregation!
Western Africa – Islamic caliphates dominate.
1800 = Hausa States = Islamic. Muslim reformers wanted shari’a enforced in Hausa; results in Sokoto Caliphate.Center of learning. Non-Muslims taxed but tolerated. Dissidents = killed
Northern Africa – Independence, modernization, westernization, nationalism all big issues.
Egypt – Western-styled military, economy after Ali.
1798-1801 = Napoleon invades, takes EGY easily. Began modernizing EGY.
1801-1870 = Period of modernization, nationalism, westernization in EGY.
1801 = Muhammad Ali = reforms (economic, political, military). Sent military officers to EUR for training, used EUR weapons. Conscripted EGY peasants, forced EGY peasants to grow cotton for export. Full industrialization never realized, though (EGY did have railroads, new irrigation canals, though.) EGY independent from Ottoman rule.
Ismail Ali = Muhammad Ali’s grandson, continued reforms.
1869 = Suez Canal completed. Increased global trade (connected MED to Red Sea). Symbolic of EGY modernization.
1870 = EGY westernization/modernization stops w/collapse of cotton market. EUR investors then took over EGY & EGY debt.
1876 = EGY sells Suez Canal to pay off debts from modernization.
1882 = Ottomans depose Ismail Ali, GB fears canal w/disrupt trade to IND, send in GB army. GB now in power in EGY.
1830s = Emperor Tewodros II. Modernization (purchased EUR weapons).
1889 = Menelik. Incorporates Shoa kingdom, completes Ethiopia. Battle of Adowa 1896 = defeats Italian army. Independent nation by 1900 (few of those in AFR).
Scramble for Africa
1884-1885 = Berlin Conference. Otto Von Bismark (leader of Prussia) called EUR powers to meet to carve up AFR; AFRs not invited. Peaceful division of AFR amongst EUR powers. Keep the balance of power, don’t interfere w/other EUR powers. FR, BEL, POR, GB, GER all participated. GB = biggest landholder in AFR. EUR powers wanted raw materials!
Southwest Asia – Ottoman world crumbling apart despite efforts to westernize & modernize.
Ottoman Empire – Modernization, westernization met w/resistance. Nationalism in OTT territories on the rise. OTT Empire crumbling.
1789-1807 = Sultan Selim III.
Loss of Arabian Pen. Disgraceful, wanted to keep Mecca/Medina (lead Muslims).
Loss of EGY to Muhammad Ali.
Janissary resistance = didn’t like westernization. Liked economic privileges since beginning of OTT rule; take Serbia away from OTT (venting frustration at reforms).
Ulamas (Muslim religious scholars) gaining power = controlled Islamic courts, controlled political/cultural policy. Modernization seen as attack on Islam by ulamas
1808-1839 = Sultan Mahmud II. Backed by Janissaries & Ulamas.
1829 Battle of Navarino. GRE resistance groups backed by EUR powers/navies ousted OTT out of GRE. EUR powers = protectors of Greek/Roman traditions.
Dissolves Janissaries after seeing decay of OTT military. Modernizes military.
Had to use GB/FR to protect Anatolia from EGY military.
1839-1861 = Sultan Abdul Mejid
Tanzimat = reorganization. Continues Mahmud II’s reforms.
Male political rights - free public trials, better tax collection, right of privacy.
Finally Ottoman military modernizes, much like EGY’s at this time.
Westernization of court system. Secular law codes replace shari’a. Also = OTT women didn’t gain any opportunities w/westernization/modernization & were further suppressed.
1853-1856 = Crimean War. OTT, GB, FR, Sardinia-Piedmont vs. RUS. GB/FR didn’t like RUS (saw RUS as a threat to central Asian trade). War fought in Romania, the Black Sea, and the Crimea (land/sea battles). Tsar Nicholas II, Alexander II (RUS) lose out. But, OTT military weakness was exposed, as their cavalry/elite troops were routed continually by RUS (wouldn’t have succeeded w/out GB/FR).
1860-1880 = demographic shift in OTT Empire. Big cities got bigger. Less people in rural areas. Young Ottomans = 1860s reform group. Wanted OTT assertion of power over EURs in the empire (which had free reign), but also wanted westernization of OTT Empire to end EUR extraterritoriality/free reign.
Young Turks – 1909 Reform group, not fond of westernization or GB/FR. Wanted a constitutional monarchy in OTT, aligned themselves w/GER moving towards WWI.
1902-1913 = total loss of Ottoman territories in EUR & N.AFR.
Asia/Oceania – GB = most influential in region. India = jewel of British Empire.
India – GB, FR, NED all competing for S.Asia (re: trade). GB ends up winning by 1800.
1818 =E. IND. CO. had power bases in Bengal, Madras, Bombay. Used local princes to rule, except for Bengal (direct EIC control). INDIA = BIGGEST IMPERIAL POSSESSION FOR GB.
British raj (reign). Capital at Delhi. Modernization, military control, maximized taxes, simplified IND property ownership. Kept cultural interference w/caste system & Hinduism to a minimum. Women didn’t benefit from GB control. Nothing changed.
Sepoys = IND troops under employment of GB. 80% of GB military in IND.
1857-58 = Sepoy Rebellion. Sepoys didn’t like military duties that conflicted w/Hindu & Muslim religious beliefs. GB changed policies after rebellion.
Queen Victoria then (GB) pledged equal protection under the law & freedom of religion & culture to all INDs.
Removal of E. IND. CO. followed. GB govt now in total control of IND.
Modernization sped up w/GB control. Harbors, railroads, irrigation canals. IND = 5th largest railroad network in world by 1900.
Indian Nationalism = began alongside GB power in IND (1820s). Rammohun Roy founded Brahmo Samaj (Divine Society; aimed at ending social/economic/ethnic divisions in IND).
Indian National Congress 1885 = more govt $ for needy, poor. Less military.
China – Europeans running CHI. Qing = inept. EUR dominance ends by 1911.
Decline of Qing Dynasty – done by 1911. Peasant rebellions, corrupt local officials, failure to fend off interested EUR powers, pop. Explosion added to economic decline.
Trade deficit w/GB = GB gave silver for Chinese Tea, but got nothing in return. CHI didn’t want GB goods.
Canton System = restrictive trade policy. 1 EUR country per 1 CHI city.
1839-1842 = Opium Wars – GB/USA traders imported tons of opium into CHI; CHI govt resented it & banned it. GB didn’t want econ interests hurt, sent in GB navy. Qing had to sue for peace. This ends the Canton system. GB = gains most-favored-nation status.
Zones of Influence – Opened up after Opium Wars. EUR powers lined up to get treaty ports in China. Extraterritoriality, free reign for EURs.
1851-53 = Taiping Rebellion = southern rebellion vs. Qing; GB/FR have to save Qing, results in more treaties favoring EURs. Devastating rebellion. 30 mil deaths, bubonic plague outbreak.
1894-1898 = Sino-Japanese War. CHI loses KOR to JAP.
1898-1901 = Boxer Rebellion. Exmpress Dowager Cixi seized power in a coup. Started secret society ‘Righteous Fists’ (Boxers). Attacked foreigners, wanted them out of CHI. EURs & JAP put down rebellion, made CHI pay reparations.
1908-1911 = Sun Yat-Sen led nationalistic Revolutionary Alliance, convinced by Boxer Rebellion, to overthrow Qing. Regional warlords resist, Yuan = president. Sun Yat-Sen started Guomindang party in response.
Japan – Westernization/Modernization = policy. Aggressive military, expansion of JAP power.
Before – Japan under Tokugawa = closed off to outside trade. USA Commodore Perry sailed into JAP 1853 to trade/refuel, demands agreement to allow later USA trade/refueling w/JAP. Result: Treaty of Kanagawa (like unequal treaties in CHI).
1864 GB/FR ships begin to shell JAP. Regional warlords use opportunity to overthrow Tokugawa Shogunate.
Restoration of Emperor Mutsuhito followed. Still a figurehead. Govt run by Meiji oligarchs. Oligarchs began modernizing & westernizing JAP economy & military (modeled off GB navy, Prussian army). Econ = private enterprise encouraged.
1894 =Sino-Japanese War. JAP gets Taiwan from CHI.
1900 = JAP sends troops to CHI to put down Boxer Rebellion.
1905-1910 =Russo-Japanese War. JAP wins Southern Manchuria & Korea.
Australia/Oceania/SE Asia – EUR introduced new crops from other parts of the world (maize, tobacco). Political/economic/cultural changes via EUR imperialism (many natives displaced, Islam spread, Asians migrated to seek new work in industrialized world outside/around Asia).
GB - Australia (1788), New Zealand (1870). Singapore (1824), Burma (1885).
Captain Cook mapped OZ (1769-78); OZ founded as a penal colony.
Displacement of aborigines occurred quickly.
NZ – Wars fought w/Maori natives, GB wins. Maori experienced Jim Crowe-like laws that kept them from obtaining political rights.
OZ – Segregation enforced in 1897, aborigines on reservations.
Self-government (like in Canada). Australia (1901); NZ (1907).
NED – small islands in Oceania. None of SE Asia, though.
FR – mostly in SE Asia. Indochina (Vietnam-1895)
Europe – Nationalism & industrialization on the rise, especially in W.EUR.
FR society divided into 3 estates: First Estate (clergy – 1% of population, owned 10% of land in FR, controlled much of FR’s wealth); Second Estate (nobles – 300k people, had 30% of FR land, held most important govt positions); Third Estate (everybody else, 80% of pop., middle class & poor).
King Louis XVI = in power. Borrowed tons of money to fund military action in AmRev (supported colonists). New reforms to gain revenue met w/resistance by nobles (2nd estate), Estates General (big meeting of all 3) called.
New alliance emerges = National Assembly, made from members of 1st/3rd estates, wanted to create constitutional monarchy. Louis locked 3rd Estate out of meeting. Result = Parisian urban poor revolted July 14, 1789 & attacked theBastille (prison). Peasants in countryside attacked nobles as well.
Declaration of the Rights of Man – written by Nat’l Assembly. Modeled after USA Dec. of Ind. Listed natural rights of man (liberty, property, security, resistance to oppression).
National Assembly renamed as Legislative Assembly. New constitution abolished nobility & limited king’s powers. EUR neighbors wanted to help Louis XVI, so Leg. Assembly declared war on them. Ends w/Louis XVI being executed (guillotine!).
National Convention – middle class legislators in National Assembly.
Jacobins – faction in National Convention, led by Robespierre. Began purging enemies of Nat’l Conv. (REIGN OF TERROR - jails 300k, kills 40k. more guillotines!)
1800-1815 = Napoleon & Napoleonic Wars
Napoleon Bonaparte = EUR’s 1st popular dictator. Generally left political reforms alone. Conscripted French commoners. Takes SPA, POR, ITA, NED, BEL, & POL. Wins stalled by 1812, invades RUS w/600k troops, loses (only 30k troops return to FRA). Several EUR countries decide to attack FRA (RUS, PRUS, AUS, GB). Napoleon defeated at Waterloo in 1815, exiled afterwards (2x).
Aftermath: EUR splits back up, PRUS gains territory in BEL, RUS gains POL.
Aftermath: Congress of Vienna 1814-1815. GB, RUS, AUS, PRUS met to keep balance of power.
Industrial Revolution – begins in EUR in 18th century (GB) and spread globally. Never slowed down!
Pop. growth, agricultural revolution, technological experimentation/innovation, growth of trade all favored industrial revolution to begin in EUR.
Technological innovations of Industrial Revolution:
Josiah Wedgwood = division of labor. Production speed!
Mechanization - increased production in most major industries.
Use of iron increased, esp. w/GB. Use of railroads, steel ships increased.
James Watt – Steam engine powered by coal. Replaced waterpower for ships, made its way to cotton mills/factories. Steamboats could cross ocean quicker, easier.
Electricity – (early 19th c.). Telegraph, Morse code. Telegraph lines used in railroads first. 1851 – Underwater cable between GB/FR.
Impact = city size exploded in 18th/19th c. Poorer city areas saw w/increase in pop. resulted in spread of diseases like smallpox, dysentery, TB. Factories employed people year-round, unlike agricultural jobs, which were seasonal.
Women in factories generally worked apart from men and received less $$$; other women stayed at home & embroidered/sewed/did laundry to make $$$.
Children employed at some textile mills, sometimes working 14-16 hour days. Later GB restricted child labor.
Workers exposed to business cycle. Bust/boom of business brought employment/unemployment to laborers. Few workers had savings.
Capitalism – free market trade w/out gov’t intervention (laissez-faire).Private ownership of property. Adam Smith = father of capitalism. Invisible hand of the market = guides economic activity.
Socialism – questioned the right of individuals to own private property. Karl Marx – German father of socialism, worked w/Joseph Engels. Marx’s argument: in industrial age conflict existed between workers (proletariat) and owners (bourgeoisie). The owners, Marx thought, profited heavily at the expense of impoverished workers. Workers (Marx thought) would rise up and fight to create a classless communistic society.
1850-1914 = global trade increased tenfold. Increase speed of transportation cut the cost of shipping, affecting industrialized/non-industrialized nations. GB controlled over half of the world’s shipping. 90% of global trade done in the British pound sterling (currency).
Russian Empire – still autocratic, multiethnic, multilingual, multicultural. Czar – head of church/state
1853-1856 =Crimean War. Displayed weaknesses of Russian military after brief success.
1904 =Russo-Japanese War. Defeated by tiny, aggressive Japan. Czar = unpopular b/c of loss, feudal arrangement in Russian society. Bloody Sunday massacre = made things worse.
Reforms: zemstvos (local assemblies). Duma est. after Revolution of 1905, but subject to whims of the czar.
1858 = northern Italian forces led by Count Camillo Benso di Cavour put down a southern Italian revolt & laid groundwork to unify Italy under King Vittorio Emmanuele.
1870-71 = Franco-Prussian Wars. France loses Alsaice-Lorraine (western border of FR/GER) to Prussia (led by Otto Von Bismarck). This solidified GER as the most powerful country on the EUR continent.
Gender roles – few women professionals prior to 1914. Working-class women did work factory jobs. Middle class women began protest groups fighting prostitution, child labor, and alcohol consumption. Elite women lived generally as they always had.
North America & Caribbean – US dominates Western Hemisphere after inspiring worldwide revolutions.
1754-1763 = French and Indian Wars. Part of 7 Years War (fought in EUR & colonies). FR + Amerindian allies vs. GB. GB wins. FR loses NA holdings. Huge financial cost of this war.
1776-1783 = American Revolution – GB NA colonies forced to pay new taxes to pay for FR & IND War. Colonists protest taxes & Proclamation Line of 1763 (limited colonial expansion westward). Colonists win war, 1783 Treaty of Paris gave US independence. GB now just in Canada.
US gets rich off natural resources coal, iron, & oil. Railroads expanded greatly to ship these resources. Sea travel quicker w/steam powered vessels, communication better w/trans-Atlantic cables between EUR & North/South Am.
Tech achievements: incandescent light bulb/Electric grids (Thomas Edison) allowed people to be productive later/earlier. North America – fully industrial, South America – in pockets (difficult to fund within the region due to gov’t debts). Industrialization spurred immigration onward.
By 1900 the US had the world’s largest economy.
Slavery & the Slave Trade – slavery abolished by 1865 in US, trans-Atlantic slave trade ended 1867
Gender roles = Women = key players in reform movements, esp. abolition.
Activism led to women demanding political rights & greater economic opportunities.
Recently freed slaves in US found segregation & Jim Crowe laws hindering new freedom.
Independence movements – 10 million poor (slaves/natives/mixed races), 3.5 million creoles, 30k peninsulares. Napoleon’s invasion of SPA/POR in 1807 opened door for revolution in Latin Am.
By 1830’s most of Latin Am made up of independent nations. Early constitutions written, hope for representative democracy alive. However, didn’t happen this way b/c of voting restrictions based on property/literacy/etc (not EVERYONE could vote). Catholic Church still powerful in Latin Am.
1791 = Haitian Revolution. Hispaniola = ½ FR (Saint Domingue), ½ SPA (Santa Domingo). Major sugar production center. Slaves = 500k, outnumbered freedmen/EURs 7 to 1. Slave revolt led by Toussaint Louverture. Independence by 1804 from FR (w/GB & SPA trying to take control in between).
1805 = Mexican Revolution – peasant rebellion led by Fr. Miguel de Hidalgo. Coopted by Creoles unfortunately.
1824 = Simon Bolivar (creole) led multiple revolts in Latin Am, expelling SPA troops. Wanted a United States of Latin America, but it didn’t last.
Society still remained quite stratified after these revolutions; poor still repressed.
Industrialization conquered native tribes by 20th century.
Slavery & the Slave Trade – fully abolished in Western Hemisphere by 1900.
Many slaves freed after early 19th century revolutionary movements (helped fight in revolts).
Brazil = last LA nation to ban slavery outright (1888).
Still, Latin Am. Former slaves found discrimination & inequality widespread.
US involvement in LA
1823 = Monroe Doctrine. US says EUROPE STAY OUT of W. HEMI. US will begin to intervene in Latin American affairs from here on out.
1846 - 1848 = Mexican/American War. Border attack led US to fight MEX. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ceded ½ of MEX to US (including TX, NM).
1898 = Spanish/American War. US defeated SPA quickly, gets Guam/Philippines/Puerto Rico. Started b/c of suspicious sinking of USS Maine in Havana, Cuba harbor.
1914 (finished)= Panama Canal. Funded/built by US after US helped a Panamanian revolt against Columbian rule to gain access/rights to finish the canal. Helps US/merchants sail between Pacific/Atlantic easily. Great for growing US navy.