I. The Road to the War of 1812



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The War of 1812

I. The Road to the War of 1812

  1. When England & France resumed war in 1803 & violated U.S. neutrality, Jefferson approved the Embargo of 1807

  1. The embargo restricting U.S. trade with England & France

  2. Jefferson contradicted his own principles of weak gov’t & liberty

  3. The embargo was unsuccessful


a. The embargo hurt NE shipping more than it hurt England or France

b. Embargo required a larger government to prevent smuggling

B. In 1808, James Madison was elected president & proved equally ineffective in gaining recognition of neutrality

1. The Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 was ineffective

2. Macon’s Bill #2 in 1810 was ineffective

C. Republican War Hawks called for war, but Federalists were opposed…War against England was declared in 1812


II. James Madison & the War of 1812


  1. The War of 1812

  1. The U.S. was unprepared for war with England: refused to raise taxes, had a small army & government

  2. The early campaigns did not go well for the American army or navy

B. Key Battles & Strategies

1. The British unsuccessfully invaded the U.S. through Canada after the Battle of Plattsburg



  1. The British successfully attacked the Chesapeake, burned the capital, & bombed fort McHenry in Baltimore

  2. The U.S. won at the Battle of New Orleans after the war was over making Andrew Jackson a national hero

C. At the Hartford Convention in 1814, NE Federalists called for Constitutional changes to preserve their power:

1. Wanted to restrict Congressional war powers, limit the president to one term, & end the 3/5 compromise

2. The Federalists appeared disloyal & never recovered

III. Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812

A. The Treaty of Ghent (1814) did not address U.S. neutrality or British impressment

B. The effects of the war:

1. Ended British-Indian alliances in the west

2. Led Spain to sign the Adams-Onis Treary in 1819 (ceded Florida & redrew the southern U.S. border)

3. The Federalists were fatally wounded & never recovered

Name ____________________

APUSH Date ___________ Pd _____



The American Revolution & the War of 1812





American Revolution

The War of 1812

Causes of the War

Long-Term Causes

Spark




Long-Term Causes

Spark



Strategy

British

American



British

American



Advantages/ Disadvantages

British

American



British

American



Turning Point Battles & Their Impact







Treaty & the Terms of the Treaty







Impact/Effects of the War








Essential Question: To what degree was the War of 1812 a “second American Revolution”?

The American Revolution & the War of 1812





American Revolution

The War of 1812


Causes of the War


Long-Term Causes

  • French & Indian War; British replacement of Salutary Neglect with Parliamentary Sovereignty;

  • Taxation policies (Grenville & Townshend Acts); Conflicts (Boston Massacre & Tea Party, Intolerable Acts, Lexington & Concord)


Spark:

  • Common Sense & Declaration of Indep




Long-Term Causes

  • British refusal to recognize American neutrality & trade rights in Europe during times of war with France; British impressment of U.S. sailors; The failure of American diplomacy & trade restrictions (Embargo Act of 1807, Non-Intercourse Act, 1809)


Spark:

  • The failure of Macon’s Bill #2 & pressure by War Hawks


Strategy


British

  • Use its superior army & navy to defeat the Continental Army in a decisive battle; Rally Southern loyalists to oppose the war


American

  • Avoid a decisive battle; Guerilla warfare tactics with colonial militias; Ally with the French




British

  • 3-pronged attack through Canada, Chesapeake, & New Orleans; Blockade the U.S. coast



American




Advantages/ Disadvantages


British

  • Superior military, better generals, more manufacturing…BUT had long supply lines & did not know the terrain well


American

  • Fighting for independence, colonial unity, did not have to win a decisive battle…BUT had an inferior military

British


American

  • Strong patriotism…BUT weak military, small national gov’t, unwilling to raise taxes to fund war






Turning Point Battles & Their Impact



  • Bunker Hill proved that the American colonists were willing to fight a full-scale war




  • Saratoga—the American “victory” allowed the French to commit as allies




  • Yorktown—the surrender of British general Cornwallis effectively ended the fighting

  • Plattsburg, NY—the Americans turned away the British attack via Canada




  • Chesapeake—the British burned D.C.




  • New Orleans—the Americans “defeated” the British & led to feelings of victory in the War of 1812

Treaty & the Terms of the Treaty

Treaty of Paris, 1783 granted the USA full independence, Americans gained all lands between the Atlantic & Mississippi River (except Spanish Florida), British agreed to remove troops from the Ohio River valley (but never did),

Treaty of Ghent ended the war but did not address American neutrality or British impressment


Impact/Effects of the War



  • Social changes: eliminated the idea of an American aristocracy, abolitionist sentiment grew, Republican Motherhood







  • The Articles of Confederation were adopted







  • Ended all Indian-British alliances in western lands

  • Scared Spain into signing the Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819

  • The lack of Federalist loyalty was the fatal blow to the party




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