I. The Road to the War of 1812



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American Revolution

The War of 1812

Causes of the War

Long-Term Causes

Spark




Long-Term Causes

Spark



Strategy

British

American



British

American



Advantages/ Disadvantages

British

American



British

American



Turning Point Battles & Their Impact







Treaty & the Terms of the Treaty







Impact/Effects of the War








Essential Question: To what degree was the War of 1812 a “second American Revolution”?

The American Revolution & the War of 1812





American Revolution

The War of 1812


Causes of the War


Long-Term Causes

  • French & Indian War; British replacement of Salutary Neglect with Parliamentary Sovereignty;

  • Taxation policies (Grenville & Townshend Acts); Conflicts (Boston Massacre & Tea Party, Intolerable Acts, Lexington & Concord)


Spark:

  • Common Sense & Declaration of Indep




Long-Term Causes

  • British refusal to recognize American neutrality & trade rights in Europe during times of war with France; British impressment of U.S. sailors; The failure of American diplomacy & trade restrictions (Embargo Act of 1807, Non-Intercourse Act, 1809)


Spark:


Strategy


British

  • Use its superior army & navy to defeat the Continental Army in a decisive battle; Rally Southern loyalists to oppose the war


American

  • Avoid a decisive battle; Guerilla warfare tactics with colonial militias; Ally with the French




British



American

  • Fight the British in Canada




Advantages/ Disadvantages


British

  • Superior military, better generals, more manufacturing…BUT had long supply lines & did not know the terrain well


American

  • Fighting for independence, colonial unity, did not have to win a decisive battle…BUT had an inferior military

British


American

  • Strong patriotism…BUT weak military, small national gov’t, unwilling to raise taxes to fund war






Turning Point Battles & Their Impact



  • Bunker Hill proved that the American colonists were willing to fight a full-scale war




  • Saratoga—the American “victory” allowed the French to commit as allies




  • Plattsburg, NY—the Americans turned away the British attack via Canada




  • Chesapeake—the British burned D.C.




  • New Orleans—the Americans “defeated” the British & led to feelings of victory in the War of 1812

Treaty & the Terms of the Treaty

Treaty of Paris, 1783 granted the USA full independence, Americans gained all lands between the Atlantic & Mississippi River (except Spanish Florida), British agreed to remove troops from the Ohio River valley (but never did),

Treaty of Ghent ended the war but did not address American neutrality or British impressment


Impact/Effects of the War



  • Social changes: eliminated the idea of an American aristocracy, abolitionist sentiment grew, Republican Motherhood




  • States created written constitutions




  • The Articles of Confederation were adopted







  • Ended all Indian-British alliances in western lands

  • Scared Spain into signing the Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819

  • The lack of Federalist loyalty was the fatal blow to the party






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