I. Questions of periodization A. Nature and causes of changes in the world history framework leading up to 600 C. E. – 1450 as a period

Missionary outreach of major religions

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Missionary outreach of major religions

  1. Christianity

    1. Remained in Africa – Ethiopia and Egypt

      1. Egypt allowed to exist under Islamic empire

      2. Myth of Ethiopian wealth led to Prestor John myth

i. Led to exploration later on

    1. Contacts between major religions, e.g., Islam and Buddhism, Christianity and Islam

1. North and East Africa

a. Christianity

1. In spite of Muslim influence

2. Ethiopia

a. St. Mark preached to East Africans during Roman period

b. Strong Christian traditions

c. Coptic monasticism

3. Egypt

4. Allowed by Muslims to worship freely

a. Many preferred rule under Muslims to former Christians

1. Cheaper and more religious tolerance

5. Unique linguistic, architectural and artistic version of Christianity

2. Holy Land – The Crusades

f. Reasons for crusades

1. convert nonbelievers

2. crush Christian movements Church deemed heretical

3. protect against attacks by foreigners

g. Reasons for Crusades

1. Genuine religious fervor

2. Geopolitical conflict between Europe and Middle East

3. Europeans desire to become more involved in trade

4. Personal ambitions – gain wealth and land

5. Racial and religious prejudice

a. Period of stability after 1000 CE led to increased trade/higher agricultural output

1. Population boom tripled number

b. Pope encouraged military expeditions to reclaim Holy Land

1. 1059-1212 – take control from Muslims

2. First Crusade – Jerusalem taken, but then lost

c. Muslims agreed to allow Christians to journey to holy sites

d. Ripple effects through Europe

1. Luxury items created demand for Asian goods

2. Italian city-states grew wealthy

3. Merchant class arost that supported stable monarchies – wanted trade protected

4. Church in Rome became more politically involved/powerful

5. Europe stimulated by technology/prosperity of Middle East

6. Women given more influence – cared for estates

a. Some even went on Crusades

e. Some of the Crusades merely huge migration of people

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