I. Questions of periodization A. Nature and causes of changes in the world history framework leading up to 600 C. E. – 1450 as a period

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Indian Ocean trade

  1. Persians and Arabs dominated

    1. Arabs controlled west

    2. Middle zone controlled by various Indian kingdoms

    3. East zone controlled by China

  2. Trade routes connected ports in western India to Persian Gulf

a. Then connected to East Africa

b. 6000 miles

3. Travel

a. Resilient to larger waves

b. Understand the monsoon season/direction of winds

c. Routes relatively safe

1. Mediterranean always had to worry about warfare

4. Marrige

a. Sailors married local women at end of routes

1. Cultures intermix

2. Foreign wives created bilingual/bicultural families

5. Goods

a. From Africa – ivory, animal hides, forest-related goods, gold, slaves

b. From Middle East – textiles, carpets, glass, Arabian horses

c. From India – gems, elephants, salt, cotton cloth, cinnamon

d. From China – silk, porcelain, paper – Japan – silver

6. China during Ming Dynasty

a. Refocused trade in early 15th century on Indian Ocean trade

1. Display glories of Middle Kingdom

b. Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf/Red Sea

c. Expeditions led by Zheng He – Chinese general of Muslim faith

1. Forced to return – jealous of notoriety of Zheng He

2. Wanted to use money to protect against nomadic invasions

3. Chinese junks – huge boats

d. Focused from then on regional trade

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