I. Questions of periodization A. Nature and causes of changes in the world history framework leading up to 600 C. E. – 1450 as a period

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5. Arabs

a. Effects on Africa

1. Trade contacts

a. Swahili Coast

b. Part of Indian Ocean Trade network

c. Already had ties from Roman times

d. African goods could reach China

1. Chinese vessels even made African coast

2. Slavery – capturing Africans, forcing into bondage

3. Brought religion to sub-Saharan and east coast

a. In comparison to North Africa, effect not nearly as extensive

b. Leaders adopted to validate rule

c. Traders adopted to secure trade contacts

d. Majority of lower classes didn’t adopt, maintained old views

B. Migration of agricultural peoples

1. Bantu migrations

a. Overview

1. Few common threads shared by many peoples of sub-Saharan Africa

2. 1000 BCE began to move from homeland of west central Africa

3. by 1000 CE had settled in almost all parts of continent South of Africa

4. played greatest roll in shaping cultural, ethnic and linguistic character

5. Changed population – increased from hunter-gatherer to agricultural based

d. Culture

1. Religion

a. Religion animistic – belief in spirits of the natural world

2. Language

a. Over time, each group developed own language/cultural tradition

b. mixed with Arabic to form Swahili

c. did not have written language

i. oral tradition preserved by griots

e. Social

1. Women

a. omen respected

i. child bearers

ii. shared agricultural work

2. Class

a. centered around age grade

1. cohort group

a. people of same age shared responsibilities, experiences

f. Economics

1. Farming/pastoralism

a. Spread knowledge of agricultural techniques

b. Followed course of Congo river, farming fertile land

c. Taught foragers techniques of cattle-raising

d. Required additional source of nutrition with banana from Malay sailors

i. Spread through reverse pattern of Bantu migration

2. Spread knowledge of iron-working

a. Not sure if they got iron-working from Kush or independently

b. Facilitated crop cultivation

3. property held communally

a. wealth determined by number of slaves, not quantity of land

g. Politics

2. Stateless societies – primary political organization

a. Organized around family/kinship groups

b. Led by respected family member

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