I. Questions of periodization A. Nature and causes of changes in the world history framework leading up to 600 C. E. – 1450 as a period


The division of Christendom into eastern and western Christian cultures



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The division of Christendom into eastern and western Christian cultures

  1. Key points

    1. Both practiced different forms of Christianity

    2. Monasticism

a. formation of religious communities, not ordained priests – monks/nuns

b. based on Benedictine ideas of contemplation, seclusion



c. Later groups – Dominicans/Franciscans – more missionary work

        1. Competed for supremacy

        2. Split in 286 – easier to administer

        3. 330 Constantine converts to Christianity – changes center to Constantinople

        4. 395 Split again – Eastern part > Constantinople

        5. 800 Holy Roman Empire starts in West – centered in Rome

        6. 1054 – Great Schism - Christianity split into Roman Catholicism and Christian Orthodoxy

        7. Question of control – centralized through Church or state?

        8. For centuries tolerated each other, but then differences too great

          1. Communion

          2. Priests should be allowed to marry

          3. Use of local languages in church

          4. Nature of God – trinity?

          5. Use of icons during worship

      1. Eastern Christian Culture

        1. Orthodox Christianity

        2. Secular rulers ran church

        3. Patriarch of Constantinople 1054 excommunicated pope

        4. Less centralized

          1. Russian churches conducted services in own language

          2. Local customs merged with Orthodox Church practices

          3. Secular empire with official church religion attached

      2. Western Christian Culture – originally Christendom, then Catholic “universal”

Overview - Importance

          1. Provided Europeans with sense of religious unity

            1. regardless of national/linguistic differences, still united

          2. Preserved Latin manuscripts

            1. philosophical essays

            2. literary works

            3. tremendous wealth of learning

            4. passed on from Muslims

          3. Tremendous sway over secular and political affairs

        1. Pope ran church – pope > cardinals > archbishops > priests

        2. Sacraments

          1. Baptism – formalized entrance

          2. Confirmation – passage to adulthood

          3. Marriage

          4. Communion – Lord’s Supper

          5. Confession – seek penance

          6. Ordination – consecrated life to serving God – priest

          7. Last Rites – Extreme Unction – given before death

        3. 1054 pope excommunicated patriarch of Constantinople

        4. Papal authority expands because of

          1. Refusal to pay taxes for Church land

          2. Sole authority of clergy over Church lands

            1. Lands given after death

        5. Though politics less centralized, religion more centralized

          1. Edicts from pope

          2. Services in Latin

          3. Political power blessed by the Church, under control – early centuries of Middle Ages

          4. Religious empire with subservient political units





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