I. Lenin’s Slow Death & the Succession Struggle



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COMMUNIST RULE in the SOVIET UNION

  1. I. Lenin’s Slow Death & the Succession Struggle (1920-29)

  2. II. Stalinist Political Dynamics (1929-53)

  3. III. The Command Economy under Stalin

  4. IV. Nikita Khrushchev (1953-64)

  5. V. Leonid Brezhnev (1964-82)

  6. VI. Yuri Andropov (1982-84)

  7. VII. Konstantin Chernenko (1984-85)

  8. VIII. A Post-Stalinist Balance Sheet

I. Lenin’s Slow Death & the Succession Struggle (1920-29)

  1. Stalin as the loyal lieutenant (1920-21)

  2. General Secretary

  3. 10th Party Congress & the ban on factions

  4. The NEP (1920-24)

  5. Famine

  6. 1921 Kronstadt Rebellion

  7. The New Economic Policy:

  8. state keeps banks & some industry

  9. Economic Successes, Political Problems

I. (cont.)

  1. Lenin drops out

  2. mid-1921: illness

  3. May 1922: stroke

  4. March 1923: stroke & loss of speech

  5. January 1924: dead at 53

I. (cont.)

  1. Lenin’s Politburo

  2. Leon Trotsky (Red Army)

  3. Lev Kamenev (Moscow)

  4. Gregory Zinoviev (Leningrad)

  5. Joseph Stalin (General Secretary)

  6. Alexsei Rykov (Commissars)

  7. Mikhail Tomsky (Unions)

  8. + N. Bukharin (Comintern)

I. (cont.)

  1. Stalin Takes Control (1924-29)

  2. 1924: 11th Congress & “socialism in 1 country”

  3. 1925-27: JS defeats “Left Opposition”

  4. (Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev)

  5. 1928-29: JS defeats “Right Opposition”

  6. (Bukharin, Rykov, Tomsky)

I. (cont.)

  1. Lenin’s Politburo Revisited

  2. Leon Trotsky (Red Army)

  3. Lev Kamenev (Moscow)

  4. Gregory Zinoviev (Leningrad)

  5. Joseph Stalin (General Secretary)

  6. Alexsei Rykov (Commissars)

  7. Mikhail Tomsky (Unions)

  8. + Nikolai Bukharin (Comintern)

II. Stalinist Political Dynamics (1929-53)

  1. A. Formal Elements

  2. Democratic Centralism

  3. CPSU General Secretary as leader

  4. Party Organs more important than Government Organs



II. (cont.)

  1. B. Informal Elements

  2. Elite CPSU & its patron-client dynamics

  3. State Terror

  4. “State of War”

  5. potential war

  6. war on backwardness

  7. Great Patriotic War

  8. Cold War

III. The Command Economy under Stalin

  1. A. What is a command economy?

  2. B. 1st 5-year Plan (1929-32)

  3. The “War Rationale”

  4. Gosplan

  5. Priorities

  6. Collectivization of Agriculture

III. (cont.)

  1. C. Later Plans under Stalin (1933-53)

  2. Supply Problems

  3. Incentive Problems

  4. “Storming”

  5. The Results

  6. Bottom Line on Stalin

IV. Nikita Khrushchev (1953-64)

  1. A. Critique of Stalin

  2. 1956 “secret speech”

  3. B. Economic Reforms

  4. frequent shifts back & forth in priorities

  5. decentralization

  6. machinery

  7. incentives

  8. C. Economic Problems

  9. no continuity

  10. D. 1964 Removal

  11. removed by the Central Committee

V. Leonid Brezhnev (1964-82)

  1. A. The Quest for Normalcy
    “Stalinism w/ a human face”

  2. B. From Rule by Stalin to CPSU Rule
    leave them alone...

  3. apparatchiki

  4. nomenklatura

  5. C. New Economic Planning Priorities

  6. from Heavy Industry to Consumer Goods

  7. D. Greater Wage-Leveling

  8. build support by not using “capitalist” incentives

VI. Yuri Andropov (1982-84)

  1. A. Analysis of Soviet Decay

  2. Corruption

  3. Industrial Inefficiency

  4. B. Changed Priorities & Began Leadership Turnover

  5. C. MG’s Growing Role

VII. Konstantin Chernenko (1984-85)

  1. A. Stalinism’s Last Gasp:

  2. KC beat out MG because KC was personnel secretary (like Stalin)

  3. B. An Era Dies Out

VIII. A Post-Stalinist Balance Sheet

  1. A. Successes

  2. party control of politics & much of society

  3. full employment

  4. basic needs met

  5. B. Failures

  6. repression of dissidents

  7. economic inefficiency

  8. commodity dependence

  9. many of Brezhnev-era gains driven by the oil boom of the 1970s




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