I have a Dream Handout List



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I Have a Dream

Handout List

Handout: Pages

“I Have a Dream” with glossary 2-5

Pre Reading Activity with Cartoon 6

Pre Reading Map Work 7-9

Vocabulary Self Assessment Chart 10

Peer Response to Rhetorical Précis 11

Précis Scoring Guide 12

Concept Maps 13-15

Appeals 16

“I Have a Dream” Appeals Grid 17

“I Have a Dream” Multiple Choice Questions and Key 18-19

“I Have a Dream” Paper Prompt 20-21

“I Have a Dream” Paper Rubric 22


I Have a Dream” Speech by Martin Luther King, Jr.

I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.

Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.

But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. And so we've come here today to dramatize a shameful condition.

In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the "unalienable Rights" of "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness." It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked "insufficient funds."

But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. And so, we've come to cash this check, a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice.

We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God's children.

It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. And those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. And there will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.

But there is something that I must say to my people, who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice: In the process of gaining our rightful place, we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again, we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force.

The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom.

We cannot walk alone.

And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead.

We cannot turn back.

There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, "When will you be satisfied?" We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We cannot be satisfied as long as the negro's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their self-hood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating: "For Whites Only." We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until "justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream."¹

I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest -- quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed.

Let us not wallow in the valley of despair, I say to you today, my friends.

And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal."

I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.

I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.

I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

I have a dream today!

I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of "interposition" and "nullification" -- one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.

I have a dream today!

I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight; "and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together."2

This is our hope, and this is the faith that I go back to the South with.

With this faith, we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith, we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.

And this will be the day -- this will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning:

My country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing.

Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim's pride,

From every mountainside, let freedom ring!

And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true.

And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire.

Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York.

Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania.

Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado.

Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California.

But not only that:

Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia.

Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee.

Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi.

From every mountainside, let freedom ring.

And when this happens, when we allow freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual:

                Free at last! Free at last!

                Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!3

¹ Amos 5:24 (rendered precisely in The American Standard Version of the Holy Bible)



2 Isaiah 40:4-5 (King James Version of the Holy Bible). Quotation marks are excluded from part of this moment in the text because King's rendering of Isaiah 40:4 does not precisely follow the KJV version from which he quotes (e.g., "hill" and "mountain" are reversed in the KJV). King's rendering of Isaiah 40:5, however, is precisely quoted from the KJV.
Glossary

Score: 20 years

Momentous: very important

Prosperity: easy living (having a comfortable life, with enough money)

Defaulted: failed to pay up

Hallowed: blessed, honored

Desolate: abandoned, lonely

Sweltering: boiling hot

Invigorating: refreshing

Threshold: entryway

Devotees: people devoted to something

Persecution: torment of a particular group or person over a period of time

Redemptive: as a way to make up for past wrongs, to clear oneself of guilt

Wallow: roll around in something (like guilt or mud)

Creed: verbalized list of beliefs

Self-evident: obvious

Oppression: one group being crushed or mistreated by another group

Oasis: a refreshing, welcoming place surrounded by desert; a rest stop

Vicious: hurtful, evil, harsh

Interposition: inserting something in between two other things; interruption

Nullification: canceling out something

Hew: cut


Jangling: harsh sound

Discords: harsh, irritating sound

Prodigious: huge

Curvaceous: curvy

Hamlet: tiny village

Gentiles: non-Jews



Pre-reading Activity
Look at Dr. Seuss political cartoon.



  1. In your OWN words, what is the message of this cartoon?

  2. What do you think is the purpose of this cartoon?

  3. In “I Have a Dream,” Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. says, “With this faith, we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood”. How does the cartoon parallel King’s message? In what way does the cartoon diverge from King’s message?

Pre Reading Map

A Pre Reading Map is a great way to get the main ideas into a usable form on paper and to preview those ideas before you read the entire text. Write the name of the text at the top of the page, and the paragraph number of the assigned paragraphs on the top of each box. Then, after skimming each paragraph, fill the paragraph box with information to remind you of ideas in the key paragraphs. You may write an important word, a statement, a short summary, or draw a picture.



Paragraph #
Paragraph #

In this box, to remember the main points of this paragraph:

  • Draw a picture,

  • Write a few words of summary,

  • Write a statement.




In this box, to remember the main points of this paragraph:

  • Draw a picture,

  • Write a few words of summary,

  • Write a statement.




Paragraph #

Paragraph #

In this box, to remember the main points of this paragraph:

  • Draw a picture,

  • Write a few words of summary,

  • Write a statement.




In this box, to remember the main points of this paragraph:

  • Draw a picture,

  • Write a few words of summary,

  • Write a statement.



Pre Reading Map


Title: ____________________

Paragraph # 4
Paragraph # 7

In this box, to remember the main points of this paragraph:

  • Draw a picture,

  • Write a few words of summary,

  • Write a statement.




In this box, to remember the main points of this paragraph:

  • Draw a picture,

  • Write a few words of summary,

  • Write a statement.




Paragraph # 13

Paragraph # 26

In this box, to remember the main points of this paragraph:

  • Draw a picture,

  • Write a few words of summary,

  • Write a statement.




In this box, to remember the main points of this paragraph:

  • Draw a picture,

  • Write a few words of summary,

  • Write a statement.




Key “I Have a Dream” Paragraphs


Paragraph 4

In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the "unalienable Rights" of "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness." It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked "insufficient funds."


Paragraph 7

It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. And those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. And there will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.


Paragraph 13

There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, "When will you be satisfied?" We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We cannot be satisfied as long as the negro's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their self-hood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating: "For Whites Only." We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until "justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream."¹


Paragraph 26

With this faith, we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith, we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.



I Have a Dream

Vocabulary Self-Assessment Chart

Word




Definition


Know It Well

Have Heard of It

Don’t Know It

Emancipation












Manacles














Languished












Unalienable












Degenerate












Engulfed












Inextricably












Righteousness












Tribulations











Peer Response to Rhetorical Précis

_____ YES 1. Does the writer include the author’s name in the first sentence of the summary?


_____ NOWriter: include the author’s name.
_____ YES 2. Does the writer include the title of the essay in the first sentence of the summary?
_____ YES Is the title in quotation marks?
_____ NOWriter: include the title of the essay.
_____ NOWriter: punctuate the title using quotation marks.
_____ YES 3. Does the first sentence clearly state the main idea of the article?
_____ NOWriter: state the main idea in the first sentence. Make sure it is clear and accurate. You can improve your first sentence by:
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
_____ YES 4. Does the writer include all of the important ideas or supporting points from the essay?
_____ NOWriter: You left out an important point: (Specify which one/s)
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
_____ YES 5. Does the writer use his/her own words?
_____ NO Writer: You used the author’s words instead of your own. (Tell where—give paragraph or line number)
_____ YES 6. Does the writer keep his/her own opinions out of the summary?
_____ NO Writer: You mentioned your opinion in the summary. (Tell where—give paragraph or line number). Remember to save your opinion for your response!
(From LS 15 Course Materials, California State University, Sacramento © 2003)


Précis Scoring Guide


Text details and main argument:
1st sentence


Advanced

Proficient

Average

Below Standard

  • Does the opening sentence include the title of the essay, author’s name, the genre (essay, article, letter) date of publication, and the main idea of the entire reading?

  • Does it use original language and avoid copying phrases and sentences?

  • Does it use a rhetorically accurate verb (e.g. “asserts,” “argues,” “suggests,” “implies,” “claims,” etc.) that describes what the author is doing in the text, and a THAT clause in which it states the major assertion (the claim or argument) of the author’s text?



10

7

4

1


Major claims, use of evidence, and how the text is developed:
2nd sentence


Advanced

Proficient

Average

Below

Standard


  • Does it use original language and avoid copying phrases and sentences?

  • Does it explain how the author develops, structures, and/or supports the argument through a discussion of claims, evidence, and/or the organization of ideas in the text?



10

7

4

1


The author’s purpose/aim:
3rd sentence


Advanced

Proficient

Average

Below Standard

  • Does it use original language and avoid copying phrases and sentences?

  • Does it state the author’s apparent purpose/aim for writing the text?

  • Does it follow the purpose statement with an IN ORDER TO phrase which explains what the author wants the audience to do, feel, or understand as a result of reading the text?



10

7

4

1


Intended audience and the relationship with the writer:
4th sentence


Advanced

Proficient

Average

Below Standard

  • Does the last sentence name the intended audience and discuss the relationship with the writer created through tone, word, choice and/or appeals?

10

7

4

1



Concept Map 1 of 3


New Concept: Summer of Discontent

Example Sentence:

Synonyms:

Definition:

Essential Characteristics:

Examples:

Non-Examples:

My sentence:


Concept Map 2 of 3


New Concept: Gradualism

Example Sentence:

Synonyms:

Definition:

Essential Characteristics:

Examples:

Non-Examples:

My sentence:


Concept Map 3 of 3


New Concept: Promissory Note

Example Sentence:

Synonyms:

Definition:

Essential Characteristics:

Examples:

Non-Examples:

My sentence:



Types of Appeals
In a nonfiction text, there are three general types of appeals an author may make to support his or her point: ethos, logos, and pathos.



Type of Appeal

Definition

Examples

Ethos

The appeal is based on the authority or “expert” status of the source of the evidence.

A pro basketball player writes an essay defending why players are worth the money they are paid.


A teacher writes an article arguing for the usefulness of homework.


Logos

The appeal is based on logic, reasoning, or facts and statistics.

An anti-war supporter offers statistics that show the cost of a war versus the economic benefit.


Using results from laboratory tests, a scientist tries to prove that memory can be improved by drinking coffee.


Pathos

The appeal is emotional in nature, and targets the reader’s feelings; this appeal tries to generate sympathy, empathy and a personal connection to the reader.

A mother whose son was killed in a gang fight pleads with others to stop the violence.


An advocate for the homeless describes a brutal night on the street spent with two homeless women.



Appeals Grid

I Have a Dream”


by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Author of Essay:

Title of Essay:


For the empty boxes, find a piece of evidence from the text we have not already noted.



Evidence Example.


Appeals Type?

Why did King choose this particular appeal/example? What audience might be persuaded by this? Why?

Emancipation Proclamation reference (paragraph 2)







Declaration of Independence quote (paragraph 4)









“dark and desolate valley of segregation” and “sunlit path of racial justice” (paragraph 6)






“justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream” (paragraph 13)








“My Country ‘Tis of Thee” excerpt (paragraph 27)









“Let freedom ring” repetition (paragraph 29)








I Have a Dream”



Multiple Choice Questions


  1. Referencing paragraph 4, why does Dr. King use the “bad check” metaphor?

    1. To imply that the U.S. is not fiscally responsible.

    2. To suggest that the U.S. needs to pay blacks reparations for racist policies of the past.

    3. To argue that a promise made by the Founding Fathers has not been fulfilled.

    4. To induce an emotional reaction in his audience.




  1. To whom is Dr. King speaking when he says, “Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred” (paragraph 8):

    1. Moderate African Americans involved in peaceful protests.

    2. Moderate whites involved in peaceful protests.

    3. Extremist whites advocating violence as a means to change.

    4. Extremist African Americans advocating violence as a means to change.




  1. Which of the following best summarizes the main point of paragraph 7?

    1. It is dangerous to assume that the battle for equal rights is over, because it’s not.

    2. 1963 is the beginning of a new age of freedom for African Americans.

    3. The battle for equal rights is over.

    4. America is doomed to never-ending conflict and discord.




  1. Dr. King says “Five score years ago” in paragraph 2 (rather than: 100 years ago) because

    1. He’s speaking to a well-educated audience that will appreciate advanced vocab.

    2. He’s contemptuous of ignorant racist whites.

    3. An allusion to Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation will shock racists.

    4. An allusion to Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation will imply that a great white American (Lincoln) has something in common with struggling blacks.




  1. Dr. King’s use of the words “we” and “us” throughout his speech, is effective because,

    1. It avoids dividing his audience into race- or philosophy-based groups.

    2. It entails an ethos appeal which encourages his audience to perceive him as trustworthy.

    3. It forces the audience to feel guilty about their own prejudices.

    4. It simplifies speech-writing for Dr. King.




  1. In paragraphs 29, Dr. King lists places around the country where he wants freedom to ring. The purpose of this list is to

    1. Suggest that the goal of greater freedom applies to the whole country, not just the South.

    2. Appeal to an audience with a strong Christian education.

    3. Use repetition to energize his audience.

    4. All of the above.


Answers:

1) Reasoning from the Text: C

2) Understanding Direct Statements: D

3) Identifying Important Ideas: A

4) Recognizing Purpose and Strategy: D

5) Recognizing Purpose and Strategy: B

6) Recognizing Purpose and Strategy: D

Analyzing a Non-Fiction Text Essay
“I Have a Dream” by Martin Luther King Jr.

This paper will examine Dr. Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech. This speech is regarded as one of Dr. King’s most important works.
To prepare for the paper, review your précis and idea map.
Writing the Paper


  • Introduction: Your introduction should include a précis of the text.

  • Body: Examine which techniques King uses to reach his audience. Evaluate how persuasive King’s speech would be for that audience.

  • Conclusion: Your conclusion should discuss why King’s argument matters today.


Criteria for Evaluation:

Successful papers will articulate what argument the text is making; construct an account of an argument; translate an argument into your own words by




  1. creating a detailed and accurate précis of the text

  2. articulating and discussing the main argument

  3. explaining how King uses one aspect of his text (a claim, a piece of evidence, a rhetorical strategy –tone, word choice, or the appeals, or the structure of the essay) to engage his audience in thinking about his main argument

  4. using effective structure that carefully guides the reader from one idea to the next;

  5. thoroughly editing so that sentences are readable and appropriate for an academic paper.

The précis, in addition to the basic information about the text (author, title, publication year, etc.), calls for a sentence to address each of these:


  1. a detailing of the main argument of the text

  2. an explanation of how the author develops and supports the major claim (thesis statement)

  3. a statement of the author's purpose/aim and why that is the purpose of the text

  4. a description of the intended audience and/or the relationship the author establishes with the audience

.

Sample Essay Structures:




Introduction: The précis & Main Argument (two paragraphs)

Body ¶ 1: Major Claim Exploration

Body ¶ 2: Major Claim Exploration Cont.

Conclusion: Why King’s Argument Matters Today




Introduction: The précis & Main Argument (two paragraphs)

Body ¶ 1: Evidence Discussion

Body ¶ 2: Evidence Discussion Cont.

Conclusion: Why King’s Argument Matters Today



Introduction: The précis & Main Argument (two s)

Body ¶ 1: Rhetorical Strategies (Logos Appeal)

Body ¶ 2: Rhetorical Strategies (Pathos Appeal)

Conclusion: Why King’s Argument Matters Today



Introduction: The précis & Main Argument (two ¶s)

Body ¶ 1: Organization/Structure Discussion

Body ¶ 2: How the Structure Connects to the Main Argument

Conclusion: Why King’s Argument Matters Today




Rubric - “I Have a Dream” Essay
Focus and Content:
1 2 3 4 5 6 1. Does the writer clearly explain King’s argument in the form of an accurate précis?
1 2 3 4 5 6 2. Does the writer think carefully about the main argument of text?
1 2 3 4 5 6 3. Does the essay fully introduce and detail one aspect of his text: a major claim, a piece of evidence, the use of appeals, word choice, tone, or structure?
1 2 3 4 5 6 4. Does the essay explain how King uses this one aspect of his text (a claim, a piece of evidence, a rhetorical strategy –tone, word choice, or the appeals, or the structure of the essay to support explore his main argument?
1 2 3 4 5 6 5. Do paragraphs after the précis provide specific quotations to support the writer's assertions about how King uses the selected aspect of his text to explore and support his main argument?
1 2 3 4 5 6 6. Does the last paragraph of essay think about why and how King’s main argument matters today?


Organization:
1 2 3 4 5 6 1. Does the essay have an effective introduction, an adequate body, and a solid conclusion?
1 2 3 4 5 6 2. Does the introduction state the specific topic and have a clear thesis?
1 2 3 4 5 6 3. Does each body paragraph include a topic sentence, supporting details, and analysis of the significance of these ideas?
1 2 3 4 5 6 4. Are coherence devices used effectively within and between paragraphs?
1 2 3 4 5 6 5. Does the conclusion support the thesis and tie together the ideas of the essay?
Grammar & Mechanics:

1 2 3 4 5 6 1. Are verbs correct (correct form, agree with subject, correct tense)?
1 2 3 4 5 6 2. Are nouns accurate (articles, plurals, possession)?
1 2 3 4 5 6 3. Is word choice precise? Are word forms correct?
1 2 3 4 5 6 4. Does the writer use effective and varied sentence structure and avoid fragments and run-ons?
1 2 3 4 5 6 5. Other:







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