I am sure all this Gestapo stuff never got anyone anywhere



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Unpublished sources

The British Government archive at the Public Records Office in Kew, London. Primarily the CO822 series of general correspondence with East Africa, the WO216 series of CIGS correspondence and the Erskine papers (WO236). Other reports on the Kenyan police are to be found in CO1037.



Published Sources

Printed Papers

The Kenya (Legislative) Council Debates in the British Library of Political and Economic Sciences of the London School of Economics



Contemporary newspapers, including many from East Africa at the British Newspaper Library in Colindale, London

Books

David Anderson and David Killingray (eds) Policing and Decolonisation: Nationalism, Politics and the Police 1917-65 (Manchester University 1992)

Ian F.W.Beckett and John Pimlott (eds) Armed Forces and Modern Counter-Insurgency (Croom Helm London 1985)

Bruce Berman and John Lonsdale Unhappy Valley vol.2 Violence and Ethnicity (James Currey London 1992)

Bruce Berman Control and Crisis in Colonial Kenya (James Currey London 1990)

David Caute Under the Skin (Penguin London 1983)

Charles Chevenix-Trench The Men Who Ruled Kenya (Radcliffe press London 1993)

Anthony Clayton and David Killingray Khaki and Blue: Military and Police in British Colonial Africa (Ohio University 1989)

Anthony Clayton Counter-Insurgency in Kenya 1952-60 (TransAfrica Nairobi 1976) The Wars of French Decolonisation (Longman London 1994)

Jacques Dalloz The War in Indo-China 1945-54 (Gill and Macmillan Dublin 1990)

Robert.B.Edgerton Mau Mau An African Crucible (I.B.Tauris&Co.London 1990)

Peter Evans Law and Disorder (Secker and Warburg London 1956)

R.A.Falk, G.Kolkes and R.J.Lifton (eds) Crimes of War (Random House New York 1971)

Peter Godwin Mukiwa (Macmillan London 1996)

Major Iain Grahame Jambo Effendi, Seven Years with the KAR (J.A.Allen London 1966)

Petra M.H.Groen Military Response; The Dutch Use of Military Force and the Decolonisation of the Dutch East Indies, 1945-50 in The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History vol 21. no.3 1993

Ronald Haycock (ed) Regular Armies and Counter-insurgency (Croom Hel London 1979)

Alf Andrew Heggoy Insurgency and Counter-insurgency in Algeria (India University Press Bloomington 1972)

Dennis Holman Bwana Drum (W.H.Allen & Co London 1964)

Alistair Horne A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954-62 (Macmillan London 1987)

W.Itote `Mau Mau` General (East Africa Publishing House Nairobi 1967) Mau Mau in Action (Transafrica Nairobi 1979)

Tabitha Kanogo Squatters and the roots of Mau Mau (James Curray London 1987)

Peter Karsten Law, Soldiers and Combat (Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn 1978)

Frank Kitson Gangs and Countergangs (Barrie and Rockliffe, London 1960) Bunch of Five (Faber and Faber, London 1977)

L.S.B.Leakey Defeating Mau Mau (Methuen & Co London 1954)

Paul Maina Six Mau Mau Generals (Gazelle Books Nairobi 1977)

Fred Madjalanay State of Emergency (Corgi London 1964)

Mohammed Mathu Urban Guerilla (Richmond Canada LSM Press 1974)

David Njagi The Last MauMau Field Marshals (Limuru Kenya Kolbe Press 1993)

B.A.Ogot & W.R.Ochieng Decolonisation and Independence in Kenya 1940-93 (James Curray London 1993)

Mark Osiel Mass Atrocity, Collective Memory and the Law (Transaction, New Brunswick NJ 1997)

Julian Paget Counter-insurgency Campaigning (Faber and Faber London 1967)

V.I. Rawcliffe The Struggle for Kenya (Victor Gollancz London 1954)

John Russel Kenya, Beyone the Marich Pass A District Officer’s Story (Radcliffe Press London 1994)

Anthony Short The Communist Insurgency in Malaya 1948-60 (Frederick Muller London 1971)

C.T.Stoneham MauMau (Museum Pres London 1953)

Richard Stubbs Hearts and Minds in Guerrilla Warfare; The Malayan Emergency 1948-60 (Singapore Oxford University Press Singapore 1989)

L.S.Sunga Individual Responsibility in International Law for Serious Human Right Violations (Martinus Nijhoft, Dordrecht, Netherlands 1982)

Sir Robert Thompson Defeating Communist Insurgency (London Chatto and Windus 1966)

David Throup The Economic and Social Origins of Mau Mau (James Currety London 1988)

“Crime, Politics and the police in colonial Kenya 1939-63” in David.M.Anderson and David Killingray (eds) Policing and Decolonisation: Nationalism, Politics and the Police 1917-65 (Manchester University 1992)



H.K.Wachubga The Swords of Kinyanjaga (Nairobi East Africa Publishing House 1975)

Colin Wills Who Killed Kenya? (London Denis Dobson 1953)

1 Letter from Supt. Tony Cross, Kenya Police to Streatham CID 1/3/53 PRO CO822/489

2 Whilst the academic literature on Mau Mau and the Emergency is extensive, balanced accounts concentrating on the role of the security forces remain limited, however, most notably Anthony Clayton Counter-Insurgency in Kenya 1952-60 (Nairobi 1976); Robert.B.Edgerton Mau Mau An African Crucible (London 1990) esp. pp142-172 is unduly biased against the security forces. Perhaps as an anthropologist he is used to dealing with older skeletons than those he is trying to reveal here.

3 PRO WO216/853 Erskine to CIGS 14/6/53

4 PRO WO705/259 Historical report 5Bn KAR 4/50 TO 3/55

5 PRO WO71/1218 Court-martial of G.S.L.Griffiths 25-7/11/53

6 PRO WO71/1221 Court-martial of G.S.L.Griffiths 4&8-11/3/54

7 Griffiths was the only soldier court-martialled for murder during the Emergency period, although there were five cases of manslaughter. Unfortunately none of these particular transcripts have been retained, although the low sentences awarded for those found guilty indicates the crimes were not thought of as serious. PRO WO99/9 Register of General Court-Martials overseas 1945-60

8 PRO CO822/472 Trial transcript of PO Keates and Sgt. Rubens 21-29/9/53

9 PRO CO822/489

10 PRO CO822/499

11 For example Peter Evans Law and Disorder (London 1956); Clayton Counter Insurgency, Edgerton Mau Mau. None of these authors, however, had access to the transcripts of the court-martials. Their reliance on secondary sources – particularly on Evans, for the latter accounts – has led them both to a misrepresentation of the evidence and a misleading emphasis on what the cases and the treatment of Griffiths actually reveal.

12 A Kikuyu Home Guard killing a suspect in front of European witnesses: John Russel Kenya beyond the Marich Pass: A District Officer’s Story (London 1994 – p5) or “Jock”, a Kenya Regiment sergeant platoon commander boasting about shooting uncooperative prisoners Major Iain Graham Jambo Effendi (London 1966) pp45-6, for example

13 See W. Itote `Mau Mau` General (Nairobi 1967), `Mau Mau` in Action (Nairobi 1979) Paul Maina Six Mau Mau Generals (Nairobi 1977); Mohammed Mathu Urban Guerrilla (Richmond Canada 1974); H.K.Wachanga The Swords of Kinyajaga (Nairobi 1975)

14 Colin Wills Who Killed Kenya? (London 1957) p97

15 E.M.Opton jr and R.Duckles, `It didn’t happen and besides they deserved it` in R.A. Falkes, G.Kolks and R.J.Lifton (eds) Crimes of War (New York 1971) pp441-444

16 For example David Drummond, in Dennis Holman Bwana Drum (London 1964) pp25-6. Drummond tempers this with an admission that there had been a few undesirable types in the police due to its rapid expansion, specifically mentioning a Rhodesian who had been sent to the Rift Valley pending an enquiry into a shooting p119

17 David Throup Crime, Politics and the police in colonial Kenya 1939-63” in David.M.Anderson and David Killingray (eds) Policing and Decolonisation: Nationalism, Politics and the Police 1917-65 (Manchester University 1992) p141

18 Report from Baring to Erskine on police force 9/53 PRO WO216/81

19 Minute, PRO CO968/376

20 Peter Karsten Law, Soldiers and Combat (Westport Conn. 1978) pp106-111

21 Bruce Berman Control and Crisis in Colonial Kenya (London 1990) pp352-4, 356-7

22 Bruce Berman and John Lonsdale Unhappy Valley vol.2: Violence and Ethnicity (London 1992) p454

23 Ian F.W.Beckett & John Pimlott (eds) Armed Forces and Modern Counter-Insurgency (London 1985) pp2-5

24 Sir Robert Thompson Defeating Communist Insurgency (London 1966) Kitson suggests that if necessary the law can be changed to accommodate the state’s response. Frank Kitson Bunch of Fives (London 1977) p289

25 Charles Townshend `The Irish Insurgency, 1918-21` in Ronald Haycock, Regular Armies and Insurgency (London 1979)

26 PRO WO263/17 African Information Service (Kenya) pamphlet `Mau Mau`

27 Expansion of Police Force PRO WO128/56

28 Draft despatch 4/55 PRO WO232/16

29 23/6/53 PRO CO822/474

30 This letter is mentioned in his 7/7/53 to CIGS PRO WO216/855; unfortunately, copies are to be found neither on the WO286 series of Erskine’s papers nor in the WO216 series of CIGS correspondence with East Africa.

31 Karsten Law , Soldiers and Combat pp37-8, 70-84

32 Anthony Short, The Communist Insurgency in Malaya 1948-60 (London 1971) pp160-9

33 Richard Stubbs, Hearts and Minds in Guerrilla Warfare : The Malayan Emergency 1948-60 (Singapore 1989) p75

34 LegCo Debates 8/10/53

35 Alistair Horne, A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1949-62 (London 1987) pp196-7, 204-5

36 L.S.B. Leakey, Defeating Mau Mau (London 1954) p126

37 S.V.Cooke, LegCo Debates 1953 15/1/53

38 Erskine to CIGS 14/6/53 PRO WO216/853

39 The Njoro Settlers Association as early as November 1952 had written to Blundell asking that the special magistrate and KPR be removed to allow them a free hand. Tabitha Kanogo Squatters and the Roots of Mau Mau (James Currey London 1987) p141 Major Keyser proposed the immediate shooting without challenge of all groups of Kikuyu carrying pangas (regardless of the agricultural dislocation this would presumably have caused) LegCo Debates 15/1/53

40 Fred Majdalany State of Emergency (Corgi London 1964) p143

41 Findings of R.A.Wilkinson, First Class Magistrate into the death of Elijah Njeru, Nyeri 30/1/53 PRO CO822/417

42 Baring to Lyttleton 11/2/53 PRO CO822/471

43 Berman, Command and Crisis p358

44 letter from Canon TFC Bewes to Baring 28/1/53 PRO CO822/471

45 Brockway was at the forefront of the campaign to expose the conduct of the security forces in Kenya. Kitson notes that he brought a pamphlet written by Brockway at Waterloo station prior to departing for Kenya which `sowed seeds of doubt as to whether we were handling the Emergency in a civilised manner` Kitson Gangs and Counter-Gangs p6

46 Baring to Lyttleton 9/3/53 PRO CO822/471

47 Trial transcript of Ruben and Keates PRO CO822/772 PP38, 110-1, 133, 141 There is no mention of any follow-up investigation to find out.

48 Ibid, p129

49 Ibid pp116, 124

50 Ibid pp163-4

51 Ibid pp165-6

52 Baraza 28/4/53 quoted in Evans Law and Disorder p261

53 Buist memo 1/10/53 PRO CO822/471

54 Trial transcript PRO CO822/425 pp112, 134, 143-4, 177-80

55 Crawford to Lyttelton 15/12/53 PRO CO822/474

56 South London Press 13/3/53 p6

57 Findings of E.M.Risley, 1st Class Magistrate: Enquiry at Nyeri, 30/6/53 and 4/7/53 PRO CO822/489 Marshall had received one week’s police training in November 1952, and had no other police experience.

58 Baring to Lyttelton 12/8/53 PRO CO822/489

59 Erskine to CIGS9/11/53 PRO WO128/860

60 Anthony Clayton “The Police in East Africa” in Anthony Clayton and David Killingray, Khaki and Blue: Military and Police in British Colonial Africa (Ohio University 1989) pp120-1

61 P.Rogers CO London to HS Potter Chief Secretary’s Office Nairobi

62 25/4/53 Baring to Lyttelton PRO CO822

63 H.S.Potter to Maj. Hugh Fraser, MP 18/4/53 PRO CO822/474

64 Petra M.K.Groen “Military Responses: The Dutch Use of Military Force and the Decolonisation of the Dutch East Indies, 1945-50” in The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History vol.21 no.3 1993 p37

65 Both were described in a 8/6/53 brief to Erskine, `Notes on the local press` as “pro-army” PRO WO236/217

66 Baraza 11/3/53 quoted in Peter Evans Law and Disorder (London 1956) p172

67 Press office handout no 68 Nairobi 17/4/53 PRO CO822/474

68 East Africa Standard “Kenya’s Good Name” 18/4/53

69 Memo from Muller to Gorell-Barnes 21/5/53 PRO CO822/474

70 Frank Kitson Gangs and Counter-Gangs (Barrie and Rockliff London) p46

71 In Rhodesia the CinC General Walls similarly noted that any soldier or policeman stepping over the line would “get hammered”. But the SF there had been granted complete legal immunity unless it could be proven that they had acted ‘in bad faith’. David Caute, Under the Skin (Penguin London 1983)p189

72 Peter Godwin notes that he was trained as a police officer in Rhodesia, where three challenges had to be issued before firing, to `speed shout` “I’m plice officerstostostop” to be able to shoot legally in something under two seconds. Peter Godwin, Mukiwa (Macmillan London 1996) p225

73 Erskine to CIGS 7/7/53PRO CO822/693

74 The commandimg officer of the Devon’s gave £5 for the first kill and other officers Griffiths knew of 10/-. Court-martial of G.S.L.Griffiths, PRO WO71/1221 pp58/9

75 Erskine to VCIGS, 29/6/53 PRO CO822/474 Germans on the Eastern Front in the Second World War, and Americans in Vietnam have all cited the emphasis put on high body counts as imposing sufficient pressure to make them commit war crimes. Karsten, Law Soldiers and Combat pp78-80; `Statement of Lieutenant Duffy` in Falk, Kolks and Lifton Crimes of War pp248-54

76 Griffiths was a horsebreeder with stables in Nyeri. Mau Mau had killed one of his horses by pushing a pole up its rectum. Court-martial of G.S.L.Griffiths PRO WO71/1218 26/11/53 p57

77 Ibid, 27/11/53 pp87,103-4

78 Court-martial of G.S.L.Griffiths PRO WO71/1221 10/3/54 pp6-7 Likewise Inspector Williams of CID who had handed the prisoners over to Griffiths said that “in his experience . . . hard-core terrorists were impervious to threats or anything else” (my italics) 9/3/54 p20

79 Erskine to CIGS 23/7/57 PRO822/693

80 Court-martial of G.S.L. Griffiths PRO WO236/17

81 EAC minute on court-martials, 7/1/54 PRO WO236/17

82 The Observer, 15/11/53

83 Baring to Lyttelton 28/11/53 PRO CO822/499

84 Twining to Gorell-Barnes 25/11/53 PRO CO822/49

85 Deputy Governor Tanganyika’s office to Lyttelton 7/12/53 PRO CO822/499

86 Crawford to Lyttelton 8/12/53 PRO CO822/499

87 Baring to Lyttelton 17/7/83 PRO822/692

88 Interim Report to Commissioer of Police, Dar es Salaam from A.J.Poppy, AssistantCommissioner of Police CID; Provisional Police HQ, Arusha 25/10/53 PRO CO822/499

89 Trial transcript of Hayward and African members of screening team; PRO CO822/499 pp31-34

90 LR Maconochie Welwood LegCo Debates 26/11/53

91 Baring to Crawford 5/12/53 PRO CO822/499

92 Lyttelton to Crawford 5/12/53 PRO CO822/499

93 17/12/53 W.P.Hayward to Lyttelton PRO CO822/499 Hayward maintained that his son had been pressured in to pleading guilty for unspecified political reasons, and that the ID parade to pick out the African screeners had been a farce, as the screeners were all wearing their police uniforms and carrying rifles.

94 The People, 1/20/70 Short, Communist Insurrection pp167-9, Stubbs Hearts and Minds pp71-5

95 Malcolm Page, KAR: a History of the King’s African Rifles (Leo Cooper London 1998) p210 PRO WO305/259 lists those officers attending

96 Alistair Horne, “The French Army and the Algerian War, 1954-62” in R.Haycock (ed), Regular Armies and Counter-insurgency p79

97 Mark Osiel , Mass Atrocity, Collective Memory and the Law (Transaction, New Brunswick NJ 1997)

98 Extract from Kenya fortnightly Intelligence Summary no15/53 for Fort Hall and Thika PRO CO822/489

99 E.B.David to Crawford 24/11/53 PRO CO822/489

100 Crawford to E,B.David 16/12/53 PRO CO822/489

101 Quoted in Clayton, Anthony The Wars of French Decolonisation (London 1994) p178

102 Gikonyo, LegCo Debates 15/1/53

103 General C.Nicholson, CinC Middle East Land Forces 18/5/53 report on 11-16/5/53 tour of Kenya to VCIGS PRO WO216/852

104 The secretary to the Emergency Council in Nairobi, J.O.Moreton, noted that one senior officer who had been in Nairobi for six months had only recently asked what a `squatter` was. Moreton to M.P.Hall, MP 14/8/53 PRO CO822/499

105 LegCo Debates 18-19/2/54

106 Reuters report on trial of Hvass 21/12/53 PRO CO822/499

107 Memo by Young 25/10/54 PRO CO1037/7

108 Notes by the Member for African Affairs on the Commissioner of Police’s Paper entitled “The Grounds Upon which a new state for the police is urged” 1/11/54 PRO CO1037/7

109 Baring to Lyttelton 11/8/53 PRO CO822/692

110 Charles Chevenix-Trench, The Men Who Ruled Kenya (London 1993) p259



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