Directions: You should be able to answer each of the following questions. This is review and practice. This is not an indication of the specific questions on the Midterm exam. Your studying should cover all of the topics we covered in class, not just the information below.
1. List three ways the Renaissance differed from the Middle Ages.
2. Choose one writer or artist from the Italian Renaissance and describe how Renaissance ideas influenced his or her work.
3. Identify three of the following and describe how they contributed to the Renaissance in northern Europe: Dürer, Bruegel, Rubens, Sir Thomas More, the van Eycks, Erasmus, Shakespeare, Cervantes, or Rabelais.
4. Explain why the development of printing is described as a “revolution.”
5. List three ways the Catholic Church responded to the Protestant Reformation.
6. Explain why the theory of Copernicus was so strongly opposed by the Church and scholars.
7. Compare the scientific method to the traditional way of seeking knowledge. How were they different?
8. List three reasons European nations encouraged overseas exploration.
9. Describe the role of Portugal and the role of Spain in conquering the world’s oceans.
10. Explain why early trade patterns in Southeast Asia can be described as “global.”
11. List three ways India influenced the development of civilization in Southeast Asia.
12. Compare the methods the Portuguese and the Dutch used to control the spice trade in Asia.
13. Describe China’s attitude toward foreigners.
14. Identify three reasons why Japan closed its doors to the outside world.
15. Explain three reasons why the Spanish were able to conquer the Aztec and Incan empires.
16. Explain two ways that Spain supplied workers to make the sugar plantations profitable.
17. Describe how the Treaty of Paris of 1763 affected British and French claims in the Americas.
18. List two ways that the Atlantic slave trade affected Africa.
19. Identify two groups that battled for power in southern Africa.
20. Explain how the voyages of Columbus led to a global exchange.
21. Describe three ways that European powers strengthened their economies in the 1500s and 1600s.
22. Explain why the Enlightenment is sometimes called the Age of Reason and link it to the Scientific Revolution of the 1500s and 1600s.
23. Give a brief description of each of these thinkers’ beliefs: Locke, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau.
24. Contrast the economic philosophy of the physiocrats with that of the mercantilists.
25. Describe how the artistic tastes of aristocrats differed from those of the middle class.
26. List three factors that helped Britain become a global power in the 1700s.
27. List the three new institutions that became part of England’s changing government in the 1700s and briefly describe their functions.
28. Identify three causes of the American Revolution.
29. Describe the three divisions of France’s social structure before the French Revolution.
30. Identify three causes of the financial crisis France faced in the late 1780s.
31. Give two examples of how popular uprisings moved the French Revolution forward.
32. Identify the four stages of the revolution.
33. List five ways the revolution changed life in France.
34. List the main events in the rise and fall of Napoleon.
35. Describe the chief goal of the Congress of Vienna.
36. List three factors that played a role in the agricultural revolution in Britain in the 1700s.
37. Explain how the agricultural revolution contributed to population growth in Britain.
38. Identify three energy sources that helped power the Industrial Revolution.
39. List five factors that helped Britain take the lead in industrialization.
40. Describe how the factory system changed the nature of work.
41. List three reasons why factory owners often preferred women workers to men.
42. Describe the significance of the ideas of each of the following in relation to the Industrial Revolution: Thomas Malthus, Jeremy Bentham, Karl Marx.
43. List three differences between conservative and liberal ideologies in Europe in the early 1800s.
44. Explain how liberals and nationalists contributed to unrest in Europe after 1815.
45. Describe the social and economic problems in France that led to revolts in 1830 and 1848.
46. Identify European countries that, like France, experienced revolutions in 1830 or in 1848.
47. Explain two reasons why the revolts of 1830 and 1848 generally failed.
48. Explain why Haiti’s struggle for freedom was long and complex.
49. List three technological advances that helped industry grow.
50. Define the term corporation and explain the connection between technology and the growth of these new ways of doing business.
51. Describe three ways the lives of workers who lived in cities changed during the later Industrial Revolution.
52. Identify three middle-class values during the 1800s.
53. Compare the responses of realist and romantic artists to the industrial world.
54. Explain how each of the following wars helped Prussia to unite Germany: war with Denmark, the Austro-Prussian War, and the Franco-Prussian War.
55. List five factors that helped German industry grow in the late 1800s.
56. In one sentence, explain the objective of Bismarck’s domestic policy regarding Catholics and socialists.
57. Describe the tension between regionalism and nationalism in Italy.
58. Explain how the weakening of the Ottoman empire led to conflict in the Balkans.
59. Describe Russia’s social structure and explain how the social structure made it difficult to achieve economic and social progress.
60. List three reforms that resulted from the revolution of 1905.
61. How did the Liberal party in the House of Commons restrict the power of the Lords? Why was it necessary to do so?
62. List five economic and/or social reforms passed by the British Parliament in the 1800s and identify which group they helped.
63. Explain what the Irish nationalist leader Daniel O’Connell meant when he said “My first object is to get Ireland for the Irish.”
64. Summarize the failures of Napoleon III’s domestic and foreign policies in one sentence each.
65. Describe the effect of the Dreyfus affair on French society.
66. Identify two ways in which reformers worked to make the United States more democratic in the mid-1800s.
67. List three motives of imperialists in the late 1800s.
68. Identify three examples of African resistance to European colonization.
69. Use two examples to describe how insensitivity by the British toward Hindu and Muslim religious traditions caused the Sepoy Rebellion.
70. List three internal problems China faced in the 1800s.
71. Compare the way imperial Britain exercised control over India and China.
72. Drawing Conclusions How did the Glorious Revolution provide England with the beginnings of a limited monarchy?
73. Recognizing Causes and Effects What political and social changes resulted from the English Civil War?
HWS 2012 MT review
Answers should include three of the following: It was a period of cultural rebirth; it was a period of great creativity; its thinkers explored the realm of human experience, rather than religious issues; and it was a time when human achievement was emphasized.
Answers should include one of the following: Leonardo da Vinci—great realism from study of nature; Michelangelo —his David recalls harmony and grace of classical forms; Raphael—blended Christian and classical styles; Castiglione—focused on the qualities of the ideal human in terms of the classical model of balance; and Machiavelli—focused on individual and on realities of use of power.
DIF: A REF: 339-341 OBJ: C14S1-3
TOP: Art and literature, Influence of Renaissance
Answers should include three of the following: Durër—painter who brought Italian Renaissance ideas to Germany; the van Eycks—Flemish painters who developed oil paint and a realistic style of painting that focused on the common person; Bruegel—Flemish painter whose realistic painting of peasant life influenced later artists; Rubens—Flemish painter who created larger-scale paintings; Erasmus—Dutch humanist who translated the Bible into Greek and worked toward Church reform; Sir Thomas More—English humanist who wrote Utopia and used his writing to press for social and economic reforms; Rabelais—French humanist and writer who used characters in his novels to offer his own ideas on education and religion; Shakespeare—great English poet and playwright whose plays focus on the powerful forces that affect humanity; and Cervantes—Spanish writer who wrote Don Quixote.
DIF: E REF: 342-345 OBJ: C14S2-2
TOP: Impact of the individual, Northern Renaissance
The printing revolution brought huge changes. The availability of books increased access to knowledge and exposed people to new ideas. This, in turn, influenced thought and affected movements for change.
DIF: A REF: 345 OBJ: C14S2-3 TOP: Technology, Printing revolution
Answers should include three of the following: appointed reformers to key posts within the papacy, established the Council of Trent, stepped up the Inquisition, recognized a new religious order to spread the Catholic faith, and reformed convents and monasteries.
DIF: A REF: 353-354 OBJ: C14S4-3 TOP: Religion, Catholic Reformation
It challenged the whole system of human knowledge upon which the medieval world was grounded.
DIF: A REF: 356 OBJ: C14S5-1
TOP: Continuity and change, Heliocentric model of the universe
The new scientific method relied on observation and experimentation, while the traditional way relied on subjective observations and conclusions inherited from the classical world.
DIF: A REF: 357-358 OBJ: C14S5-2 TOP: Science, Scientific method
Reasons include the following: They wanted to find an all-water trade route to Asia that bypassed the Mediterranean; they wanted to fulfill an old desire to crusade against the Muslims and spread Christianity; and they wanted to satisfy their sense of curiosity about other lands and their spirit of adventure.
Portugal was the first to finance ocean exploration. A Portuguese explorer, Da Gama, was the first to find an all-water route to Asia. Another Portuguese explorer, Magellan, was the first to circumnavigate the globe. Spain sponsored Columbus, who crossed the Atlantic and reached the Americas.
DIF: A REF: 365-366 OBJ: C15S1-3
TOP: Global interaction, Portugal and Spain
Trade linked East Africa and the Middle East to India, Southeast Asia, and China.
DIF: A REF: 369-370 OBJ: C15S2-1
TOP: Global interaction, Southeast Asian trade patterns
India influenced Southeast Asia in the following areas: religion (Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam all spread to Southeast Asia from India), writing, law, government, art, architecture, and farming.
DIF: A REF: 370-371 OBJ: C15S2-2
TOP: Global interaction, India and Southeast Asia
Both the Portuguese and the Dutch used military force to control the spice trade; however, the Dutch forged closer ties with local rulers than the Portuguese did.
DIF: A REF: 373-374 OBJ: C15S3-1
TOP: Global interaction, Asian spice trade
China viewed foreigners, including western merchants, as barbarians from inferior cultures.
DIF: A REF: 377 OBJ: C15S4-1
TOP: Global interaction, China limits trade
Japan was afraid that foreigners might invade it, it wanted to discourage Christian missionaries, and it wanted to isolate its own Christians, whom it suspected of disloyalty.
DIF: D REF: 380-381 OBJ: C15S4-3
TOP: Global interaction, Japan and isolation
The Spaniards had horses and superior weapons. They were aided by enemies of the Aztecs and Incas. The Indians were weakened and demoralized by disease.
DIF: A REF: 388 OBJ: C16S1-2
TOP: Global interaction, Conquest of the Americas
Under the encomienda system, conquistadors enslaved Native Americans to work on plantations. Spanish settlers imported African slaves to work as field hands.
DIF: A REF: 390 OBJ: C16S2-2 TOP: Economics, Sugar plantations
By the terms of the Treaty of Paris, France ceded Canada and its lands east of the Mississippi River to Britain. Britain returned France’s sugar-producing islands in the Caribbean.
DIF: A REF: 396 OBJ: C16S3-3
TOP: Continuity and change, Treaty of Paris of 1763
Many Africans died as a result of brutal conditions on slave ships. The populations of West African states were depleted. New states, whose way of life depended on slave trade, rose in West Africa.
DIF: A REF: 400 OBJ: C16S4-2
TOP: Global interaction, African slave trade
Dutch farmers, called Boers, battled the Zulus, a powerful African group, for control of southern Africa.
When Columbus returned to Spain in 1493, he brought plants, animals, and people from the Americas. When he returned to the Americas, he took European settlers, plants, and animals. This exchange led to a global movement of people, ideas, and technologies.
DIF: A REF: 403-404 OBJ: C16S5-1
TOP: Global interaction, Columbian Exchange
European powers adopted the policy of mercantilism by which colonies existed for the benefit of the parent country. Europeans regulated trade with their colonies, sold monopolies to industries or trading companies, and imposed tariffs to protect their industries from competition.
DIF: A REF: 406 OBJ: C16S5-1 TOP: Economics, Mercantilism
The thinkers of the time believed that you could use reason to discover the natural laws that underlie a just society. The Enlightenment’s faith in reason to solve social problems grew out of the successes of science during the Scientific Revolution.
DIF: A REF: 446 OBJ: C18S1-1 TOP: Social systems, Age of Reason
Locke believed people were born with natural rights and that they formed governments to protect these rights. People have the right to overthrow a government that fails to protect their natural rights. Montesquieu believed that the separation of powers was the best way to protect liberty. Voltaire believed that freedom of speech and thought were essential rights. Rousseau believed that people are basically good but become corrupted by society. People in an ideal society would put the collective good over their own interests.
DIF: A REF: 446-449 OBJ: C18S1-2
TOP: Impact of the individual, Enlightenment thinkers
Physiocrats believed government should not interfere with trade, they supported free trade, and they believed real wealth came from making the land more productive. Mercantilists called for the acquisition of gold and silver wealth through trade. They believed trade should be supported through government regulation to achieve a favorable trade balance.
DIF: D REF: 406, 450 OBJ: C18S1-3 TOP: Economics, Physiocrat
Aristocrats favored art and architecture either in the classical tradition, the grand, ornate style of the baroque, or the elegant style of the rococo. The middle class, however, had simpler tastes and preferred art that reflected the reality of their daily lives.
DIF: A REF: 453-455 OBJ: C18S2-3
TOP: Art and literature, Aristocrats and middle class
Answers should include three of the following: an island location, a strong navy, success in war, a favorable business climate, the union of England and Scotland.
DIF: E REF: 456-457 OBJ: C18S3-1
TOP: Global interaction, Britain’s rise to global power
Political parties—advanced the interests of the groups in political power (landed aristocrats and wealthy business people); cabinet—helped the king rule; prime minister—headed the cabinet and acted as chief official of the government.
Answers should include three of the following: British taxes on the colonies without representation in the Parliament, tightening British control of colonial trade, growing sense of distinct American identity, punitive measures against the colonies for rebellious acts.
DIF: A REF: 460-461 OBJ: C18S4-2
TOP: Power and conflict, American Revolution
The First Estate was made up of the clergy. The Second Estate was made up of the nobility. The Third Estate was made up of the bourgeoisie (or middle class) as well as peasants and city workers.
DIF: E REF: 468-470 OBJ: C19S1-1 TOP: Social systems, Ancien regime
Answers should include three of the following: deficit spending, overspending, a declining economy, poor harvests, the failure of economic reform.
DIF: A REF: 470-471 OBJ: C19S1-2
TOP: Economics, France faces financial crisis
Answers may include two of the following: the storming of the Bastille—set the revolution in motion and pushed the National Assembly to take action; women’s march on Versailles—forced the return of the king to Paris and pushed the National Assembly to turn France into a constitutional monarchy; uprisings by the sans-culottes and “September massacres”—pushed the revolution into a more radical stage.
DIF: A REF: 473-475, 477-478 OBJ: C19S2-1
TOP: Political systems, Popular uprisings
the moderate phase; the radical phase; the Directory; the Age of Napoleon
DIF: D REF: 473 OBJ: C19S3-1
TOP: Political systems, Stages of the French Revolution
Answers may include five of the following: the revolution abolished the old social order and made all French men equal citizens; it instituted a new government; it brought the Church under state control; it changed fashion; it introduced nationalism; it made public education available; it encouraged religious toleration; and it promoted France as a secular nation instead of a religious one.
Main events in the rise of Napoleon: He won several victories against the Austrians and captured most of northern Italy; he helped overthrow the Directory and set himself up as First Consul; he declared himself emperor of the French; he defeated all the major powers, except for Britain. Main events in the fall of Napoleon: He lost his campaign against Russia, which led to his defeat by Russia, Britain, and Prussia; he abdicated.
DIF: A REF: 484-490 OBJ: C19S4-1 TOP: Impact of the individual, Napoleon
to create a lasting European peace by establishing strong nations surrounding France and a balance of power and by protecting the system of monarchy
DIF: A REF: 492-493 OBJ: C19S5-2
TOP: Political systems, Congress of Vienna
Answers should include three of the following: enclosure, the use of fertilizer and other methods to renew the soil, new methods of crop rotation, and new mechanical devices.
DIF: E REF: 499 OBJ: C20S1-1
TOP: Technology, Second agricultural revolution
The agricultural revolution lowered the death rate by reducing famine and allowing people to eat better, which improved their health and made them more resistant to disease.
DIF: A REF: 500 OBJ: C20S1-2
TOP: Technology, Second agricultural revolution
steam, coal, and water
DIF: A REF: 500 OBJ: C20S1-3 TOP: Technology, Energy revolution
an abundance of coal (natural resources), an abundance of workers (human resources), technological know-how, capital and a market for goods (good economic conditions), a stable government and an entrepreneurial outlook (good political and social conditions)
DIF: D REF: 501-502 OBJ: C20S2-1
TOP: Economics, Britain leads the Industrial Revolution
It made it rigid and took it out of the context of nature and away from the family. Also, workers in factories were no longer toiling for their own consumption, but working for someone else’s profit.
DIF: D REF: 506 OBJ: C20S3-1
TOP: Continuity and change, Factory system
They thought women could adapt more easily to machines. They thought women were easier to manage than men. They were able to pay women less than men.
DIF: A REF: 506 OBJ: C20S3-2 TOP: Economics, Women workers
Thomas Malthus—tried to explain the relationship of population growth and family size to widespread poverty during the Industrial Revolution. Jeremy Bentham—tried to justify some government intervention on behalf of the poor during the Industrial Revolution with his theory of utilitarianism. Karl Marx—tried to show that capitalism, the foundation of the Industrial Revolution, was evil because it exploited the workers.
DIF: D REF: 510-513 OBJ: C20S4-1
TOP: Impact of the individual, New ways of thinking
Conservatives favored monarchies, established churches, and aristocracy. Liberals favored constitutional governments, freedom of religion, and individual rights.
DIF: A REF: 518-519 OBJ: C21S1-1
TOP: Political systems, Opposing ideologies
Liberals challenged conservative forces by speaking out in favor of reform. Nationalists fought to gain independence from empires and establish their own homelands.
DIF: A REF: 519-520 OBJ: C21S1-3
TOP: Continuity and change, Revolts against the old order
In 1830, middle-class citizens resented the privileges of the French aristocracy and wanted the government to extend suffrage. Working-class people demanded decent pay. Louis Philippe’s policies favored the middle class over the workers. An economic slump in the 1840s caused additional unrest, and workers rioted against the upper- and middle-class interests that controlled the government.
DIF: D REF: 521-524 OBJ: C21S2-1
TOP: Continuity and change, Revolutions in France
Revolutions took place in Belgium, Poland, Austria, Italy, and Germany.
DIF: E REF: 524-526 OBJ: C21S2-2
TOP: Continuity and change, Revolutions of 1830 and 1848
The revolutions of 1830 and 1848 did not have the support of all the people. The revolutionaries lacked unity because workers wanted radical economic change while liberals wanted moderate political reforms.
DIF: A REF: 524-526 OBJ: C21S2-3
TOP: Continuity and change, Revolutions of 1830 and 1848
Haiti’s struggle began as a slave revolt led by Toussaint L’Ouverture. Full independence was gained. After his death, conflict continued until 1820, when Haiti became a republic.
DIF: A REF: 528-530 OBJ: C21S3-2
TOP: Continuity and change, Independence for Haiti
Answers could include three of the following: development of steel; new methods of production (including the assembly line); electricity; or new forms of transportation, including railroads.
DIF: A REF: 546-548 OBJ: C22S1-2 TOP: Technology, Growth of industry
A corporation is a business owned by many investors who buy shares of stock. New technologies required the investment of large amounts of money. As a result, it required more capital to start a new business than a single businessperson could provide.
DIF: A REF: 549 OBJ: C22S1-3 TOP: Economics, Corporation
Answers should point to three of the following: paved streets made cities more livable; lighting made streets safer at night; sewer systems cut death rates; some could afford better clothing; people lived longer and enjoyed healthier lives; educational opportunities were available; people had access to entertainment.
DIF: E REF: 552-553 OBJ: C22S2-3 TOP: Social systems, City life
Answers may include three of the following: comfort (luxury), respectability, propriety, responsibility, or success.
DIF: A REF: 556 OBJ: C22S3-2
TOP: Social systems, Middle class values
Realists confronted the harshness of the industrial world directly and hoped to improve the lives of the poor; romantics turned away from it to focus on nature and the emotional life of humanity.
DIF: A REF: 562-565 OBJ: C22S4-2
TOP: Art and literature, Art and the industrial world
War with Denmark—Prussia and Austria divided Schleswig and Holstein between themselves; Austro-Prussian War—Prussia gained control of several other German states; and Franco-Prussian War—victory finally convinced the German princes to unite into a single empire under William I.
DIF: D REF: 573 OBJ: C23S1-3
TOP: Political systems, Unification of Germany
Answers should include five of the following: large deposits of coal and iron; a disciplined and educated work force; a huge home market; earlier progress in industries that had been established in the mid-1800s; scientific research and development; government support including organized banking, the development of a transportation infrastructure, and tariffs to protect home trade from foreign competition.
DIF: A REF: 574-575 OBJ: C23S2-1 TOP: Economics, German industry
He wanted to ensure that citizens’ primary allegiance was to the state.
DIF: A REF: 575 OBJ: C23S2-2 TOP: Social systems, Bismarck
Most Italians felt stronger ties to their regions than they did to Italy as a nation. Therefore, it was often hard for them to move beyond regional loyalties to solve critical national issues.
DIF: A REF: 579-580 OBJ: C23S3-3 TOP: Political systems, Italian unity
As Ottoman control over the Balkans weakened, nationalist groups grew bolder in making their demands for independent nations. At the same time, European countries began to assert their ambitions in the area. The interests of these various groups often clashed.
DIF: A REF: 583 OBJ: C23S4-3 TOP: Global interaction, Balkans
Landowning nobles dominated society. Although the czar was at the top of the social structure, his power was dependent on support from the nobles. The middle class was too small to have much influence. The majority of the people were serfs. The czar could not make any reforms that affected the power of the nobles or he would lose their support. Landowning nobles had no reason to improve agriculture and took little interest in industry.
DIF: A REF: 584-585 OBJ: C23S5-1
TOP: Continuity and change, Social structure in Russia
The czar promised personal freedoms, including freedom of person, speech, and assembly, and the establishment of an elected national legislature. The prime minister enacted moderate land reforms. In the end, however, there was relatively little positive change for the peasants and the workers. Russia was still an autocracy.
DIF: A REF: 589 OBJ: C23S5-3
TOP: Continuity and change, Russian revolution of 1905
The Liberal government restricted the power of the Lords to veto tax bills, so the Lords could not veto the Liberals’ social reforms.
DIF: A REF: 596 OBJ: C24S1-3 TOP: Political systems, Parliament
Answers should include five of the following: repeal of the Corn Laws—middle and working class; abolition of slavery—slaves in Britain and its colonies; judicial reforms (more humane criminal and penal codes)—criminals; laws regulating working hours, wages, and safety conditions in industry—working class; laws regulating child labor—child workers; legalization of trade unions—workers; social welfare laws (including laws to improve public health and housing and to provide unemployment, accident, and health insurance)—working and middle class; or provisions for free elementary education for all children—society in general.
DIF: A REF: 597-599 OBJ: C24S2-1
TOP: Economic and social systems, Reform in Britain
He meant freedom from British rule and all that it entailed, including loss of Irish land.
DIF: E REF: 602 OBJ: C24S2-3 TOP: Political systems, Irish home rule
Despite economic growth, poverty continued. In foreign affairs, Napoleon suffered defeat in Mexico and a humiliating loss to Prussia.
DIF: D REF: 603-605 OBJ: C24S3-1 TOP: Political systems, Napoleon III
The Dreyfus affair tore French society into two heated camps—the nationalists, royalists, and the Church, who wanted Dreyfus punished, and the liberals and republicans who thought he was wrongly accused.
DIF: A REF: 606-607 OBJ: C24S3-3 TOP: Social systems, Dreyfus affair
Answers should include women’s suffrage and abolition.
DIF: A REF: 609-611 OBJ: C24S4-2
TOP: Continuity and change, American democratic reform
Answers should include three of the following: economic motives—manufacturers needed raw materials and markets for their goods; political and military motives—bases were needed for expanding merchant and naval fleets and imperial possessions boosted the national ego; humanitarian goals—some westerners were concerned for the welfare of people living in Africa and Asia, others wanted to spread Christianity; or Social Darwinism—believers in this philosophy thought it was their natural duty to improve the human race.
DIF: A REF: 618-619 OBJ: C25S1-1
TOP: Global interaction, European imperialism
Answers should include three of the following: the Algerians and West Africans battled the French, the Zulus fought the British, the Asante resisted the British, the Yao and Herero fought the Germans, and the Ethiopians successfully resisted the Italians.
DIF: D REF: 626 OBJ: C25S2-3
TOP: Power and conflict, European imperialism
Answers should use two of the following to show how British policies and laws violated religious and cultural traditions and caused the Indians to become so angry that they rebelled: Britain required Indian troops to serve overseas, and for high-caste Hindus it was a religious offense to travel overseas; a law permitting Hindu widows to remarry undermined Hindu religious beliefs; military orders that required Muslims and Hindus to bite off the tips of rifle cartridges coated with animal fat (from cows, which Hindus considered sacred or from pigs, which Muslims were forbidden to eat) violated religious sanctions.
DIF: D REF: 631-632 OBJ: C25S4-1 TOP: Religion, Sepoy Rebellion
Answers should include three of the following: decaying irrigation systems and canals, which led to widescale flooding; hunger; poverty; or corruption in the royal court and civil service.
DIF: A REF: 636 OBJ: C25S5-2
TOP: Continuity and change, Qing China
Britain ruled India as a colony and exercised direct and total control over it. In China, Britain controlled only trade within a designated area (sphere of influence).
DIF: A REF: 620 OBJ: C25S1-3
TOP: Political systems, British imperialism
The Glorious Revolution put William and Mary on the English throne, but they were required to accept the Bill of Rights. The Bill limited the power of the monarchy and restated the traditional rights of English citizens. After the Glorious Revolution, English rulers had to obey the law and govern in partnership with Parliament.
DIF: D REF: 421 OBJ: C17S3-3
TOP: Continuity and change, Glorious Revolution
As a result of the English Civil War, England became a commonwealth headed by Oliver Cromwell. The monarchy, the House of Lords, and the Church of England were abolished. Puritan influences resulted in the closing of theaters. Jews were welcomed back to England.