Hwf #11: The Civil War Work must be on the tabs of your homework folder for any credit

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______________, ____________

(last) (first)

IB/MYP US History--Period ____

Due: ____________ ___, 20___

HWF #11: The Civil War

  • Work MUST be on the tabs of your homework folder for any credit

  • Make sure no other work is on the tabs--graded work in the back or storage

  • Late work will be penalized 10 points per day

  • Follow the directions for each part EXACTLY as written in BLACK INK.

  • Bring a RED pen to class on the due date for corrections

Select the letter of the term, name, or phrase that best matches each description. Note: Some letters may not be used at all. Some may be used more than once. Write the letter in the blank before the description number.

A. Shiloh D. Fort Sumter H. David Farragut

B. Bull Run E. Robert E. Lee I. George McClellan

C. Antietam F. Anaconda plan J. Stonewall Jackson

G. Ulysses S. Grant

_____ 1. This called for a three-part assault on the Confederacy.

_____ 2. This battle was the bloodiest single-day battle in U.S. history.

_____ 3. This Union general earned his nickname by being a stubborn negotiator.

_____ 4. This Confederate general earned his nickname by holding up well under stressful battle conditions.

_____ 5. This battle, the first battle of the war, took place between inexperienced troops and resulted in a Confederate victory.

_____ 6. Although President Lincoln decided merely to send in "food for hungry men,” President Davis decided that the war should begin here.

_____ 7. After seizing New Orleans, this Union admiral took control of much of the lower Mississippi, helping the Union to achieve its goal of cutting the Confederacy in two.

_____ 8. This Union general spent more time preparing the Army of the Potomac for battle and less time actually leading the army into battle than President Lincoln would have liked.

_____ 9. This Confederate general, who was known for his determination and unusual tactics, led a successful defense of Richmond but suffered high casualties at Antietam.

_____ 10. This bloody battle, in which Confederate forces took Union forces by surprise, taught both sides about the necessity of sending out scouts, digging trenches, and building fortifications.

If the statement is true, write "true" on the line. If it is false, change the underlined word or words to make it true. Do not use the word false as an answer.

_________________ 11. A writ of habeas corpus is a court order that requires authorities to appear before a judge and show cause for jailing a prisoner.

_________________ 12. A Copperhead was a Northern Democrat who supported peace with the South.

_________________ 13. The riots that broke out among lower-class New York City workers in 1863 were in reaction to emancipation.

_________________ 14. Early in the war, the Confederacy tried to gain support from the nation of France.

_________________ 15. During the war, the executive powers of the federal government were expanded.

_________________ 16. At Andersonville, Confederate troops shot to death more than 200 African-American prisoners as they pleaded for their lives.

_________________ 17. In 1863, the Confederacy instituted the first income tax, taking a specified percentage of an individual's income.

_________________ 18. During the war, the Confederacy faced a severe shortage of nurses that led to skyrocketing prices and riots in the streets.

_________________ 19. At Fort Pillow, the worst Confederate prison camp, where men were jammed together without shelter and drank from the same stream that served as their sewer, nearly a third of the prisoners died.

_________________ 20. The U.S. Sanitary Commission was set up to improve the hygienic conditions of army camps and to recruit and train nurses.

_________________ 21. Clara Barton, a Union nurse, was known as the "angel of the battlefield."

Select the letter of the term, name, or phrase that best matches each description. Note: Some letters may not be used at all. Some may be used more than once. Write the letter in the blank before the description.

A. Vicksburg D. Robert E. Lee H. Abraham Lincoln

B. Gettysburg E. Jefferson Davis I. Gettysburg Address

C. Appomattox Court House F. Chancellorsville J. William Tecumseh Sherman

G. Ulysses S. Grant

_____ 22. The final surrender of the Confederate Army took place here.

_____ 23. This Confederate general surrendered on April 9, 1865, bringing an end to the Civil War.

_____ 24. With the fall of Port Hudson and this city, the Union finally achieved its goal of cutting the Confederacy in two.

_____ 25. Abraham Lincoln gave this speech during the dedication of a cemetery.

_____ 26. The Confederacy won an important battle here but lost a great general when Stonewall Jackson was accidentally shot by his own troops.

_____ 27. His march across Georgia created a wide path of destruction, terrorized civilians, attracted thousands of formerly enslaved persons, and destroyed the morale of white Southerners.

_____ 28. This three-day battle is considered the turning point of the Civil War because it crippled the Confederacy so badly that Confederate troops would never again be able to invade a Northern state.

_____ 29. As commander of all Union armies, he attacked Confederate troops over and over again, losing nearly 60, 000men in just one six-week period. He kept going because he had promised Lincoln, "Whatever happens, there will be no turning back."

If the statement is true, write "true" on the line. If it is false, change the underlined word or words to make it true. Don’t use false as an answer.

_________________ 30. After the war, William Tecumseh Sherman remained in the army and spent most of his time fighting Native Americans in the West.

_________________ 31. The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves only in the border states.

_________________ 32. The income tax law of 1863 helped businesses and made banking safer for investors.

_________________ 33. In 1881, Clara Barton helped found the American branch of the United Way, an agency whose aim is to relieve human suffering.

_________________ 34. The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery throughout the United States.

_________________ 35. Garland White shot President Lincoln just five days after Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House.

Using the map, choose the letter of the best answer.

_____ 36. About how many miles south of Vicksburg did Grant cross the Mississippi?

A. 30 B. 20 C. 10 D. 5

_____ 37. In what order did Union forces score the following victories?

A. Port Gibson, Raymond, Vicksburg, Jackson C. Port Gibson, Raymond, Jackson, Vicksburg

B. Vicksburg, Port Gibson, Raymond, Jackson D. Raymond, Port Gibson, Jackson, Vicksburg

_____ 38. About how long did the siege of Vicksburg last?

A. 6 days B. 6 weeks C. 1 month D. 3 months

_____ 39. What did Sherman's troops do after leaving Vicksburg?

A. They headed north towards the Yazoo River.

B. They headed west to join Grant's troops

C. They returned to Champion Hill.

D. They headed east to prevent Johnston's troops from reaching Vicksburg.
_____ 40. Which of the following statements is supported by the map?

A. Union forces won quick victories in every battle.

B. Confederate forces scored only a few victories

C. The Union forces lost more men than the Confederate forces.

D. Union forces were on the offensive throughout the campaign.

Document-Based Questions

Historical Context: During resting periods between fighting, many Civil War soldiers wrote letters to family members and friends.

Task: Study each document carefully and answer the question about it.

Document A

My very dear Sarah:

The indications are very strong that we shall move in a few days-perhaps tomorrow. Lest I should not be able to write again, I feel impelled to write a few lines that may fall under your eye when I shall be no more....

I have no misgivings about, or lack of confidence in the cause in which I am engaged, and my courage does not halt or falter. I know how strongly American Civilization now leans on the triumph of the Government, and how great a debt we owe to those who went before us through the blood and sufferings of the Revolution. And I am willing-perfectly willing-to lay down all my joys in this life, to help maintain this Government, and to pay that debt. . .

Sarah my love for you is deathless, it seems to bind me with the mighty cables that nothing but Omnipotence could break; and yet my love of Country comes over me like a strong wind and bears me unresistibly on with all these chains to the battle field.

The memories of the blissful moments I have spent with you come creeping over me, and I feel most gratified to God and to you that I have enjoyed them so long. And hard it is for me to give them up and burn to ashes the hopes of future years, when, God willing, we might still have lived and loved together, and seen our sons grown up to honorable manhood, around us.

41. According to this letter, why is the writer willing to lay down his life to fight in the war?

Answer: He wants to preserve the government of the United States and "American C_______________." He also feels a strong "love of C_____________" that pulls him to the battlefield. He knows he may be sacrificing his future happiness with his wife and family, but he has no d___________ about what he is doing.

Document B

My Most Dear Companion
I am happy to say to you that I am well and have another opportunity of answering your kind letter which came to hand last evening which gave me great pleasure . . . to hear that you and the Children was well. . . . I hope God will still bless us with such great blessing while we happen to be apart. and I hope the Time not far distant when we will have the pleasure of meeting in person again. You don't know how glad I would be if I was just there with you. This morning to see the sun rise over the hills in Virginia again for everything seems so sad and desolate here this morning. It seems like the ashes of dear friends and the present conflictions of things has brought deep reflection and sadness upon every heart. . . . but I hope this is a sign God has provided to bring this time of sorrow to an end and to give us peace in our land again. Though I believe the South first started on a just course but our wickedness and disobedience has brought to what we are: I firmly believe we will be bound to give up to subjugation. I don't think the South will stand much longer and I am sorry to say it, for we will be a ruined people. . . . But we ought to submit to everything to have this awful war ended and I pray to God it will end yet. . . .

42. How have the writer's feelings about the war changed since it started? Why?

Answer: The writer started out thinking that the South was doing the right thing by s_________________ and fighting. Now he is sad and discouraged because the war has brought so much d___________, ruin, and sorrow to the South. He longs simply for peace and a reunion with his f____________.

Document C

Dear Wife,

I have enlisted in the army. I am now in the state of Massachusetts but before this letter reaches you I will be in North Carolina . . . Though great are the present national difficulties, yet I look forward to a brighter day when I shall have the opportunity of seeing you in the full enjoyment of freedom. I would like to know if you are still in slavery. If you are, it will not be long before we shall have crushed the system that now oppresses you, for in the course of three months you shall have your liberty. Great is the outpouring of the colored people who are now rallying with the hearts of lions against that very curse that has separated you and me. Yet we shall meet again, and oh, what a happy time that will be, when this ungodly rebellion shall be put down and the curses of our land are trampled under our feet. I am a soldier now, and I shall use my utmost endeavor to strike at the rebellion and the heart of this system that so long has kept us in chains. . . .

43. What does the writer of this letter wish for? What is he determined to do?

Answer: He wishes for the time when he will be reunited with his wife in freedom, rather than s____________. He is determined to fight to put down the Southern r_______________ and end the slavery system.
44. What reasons did Civil War soldiers have for fighting? How was an individual's outlook affected by personal circumstances such as time, place, and background? Complete this paragraph in response to these questions, citing examples and evidence from the three documents.

Answer: Soldiers for the N__________ were fighting to restore the Union (Document 1) and to end slavery (Document 3), while S_________________ fought for their right to live in their own way (Document 2). Some soldiers felt confident about the war and their role in it (Documents 1 and 3), while others, especially in the S__________, became demoralized as the war took its destructive toll (Document 2).. For example, Ballou's confidence (Document 1) may have come in part from the fact that his letter was written e__________ in the war, while Cabble's enthusiasm (Document 3) may owe to the fact that his and his family's personal f__________ was at stake in the war.

Answer each of the following five question by completing both the thesis statement and pre-writing graphic organizer for them.

45. What advantages did the Union have over the Confederacy when the war started? What advantages did the Confederacy have over the Union?

  • Union had advantages in

    • fighting manpower

    • factories

    • food production

    • railroads

    • political leadership

    • naval ship tonnage

    • iron production

    • firearms production

  • Confederacy had advantages in

    • cotton

    • generals

    • strong military tradition

    • being highly motivated to defend their own territory

Thesis Statement: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

46. What did the Emancipation Proclamation do, and how did people respond to it?

  • The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in the areas of the Confederacy not already occupied by the Union

  • Helped persuade Britain to remain neutral and not to recognize the Confederacy

  • For opponents of slavery, the Proclamation gave the war a high moral purpose, turning it into a struggle to free the slaves

  • Allowed free African Americans to join the Union army

  • Some Northerners disapproved of the Proclamation, either because they believed it would prolong the war or because they did not favor abolition

  • Confederates reacted to the Proclamation with outrage

Emancipation Proclamation: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Thesis Statement: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

47. What were some of the hardships faced by all soldiers during the Civil War? In addition to these, what hardships did African-American soldiers face?

  • all soldiers faced

    • filthy surroundings

    • limited and poor-quality food

    • inadequate health care

    • possible death from injury on the battlefield

    • unsanitary conditions in field hospitals or prison camps

  • African-American soldiers faced

    • discrimination in the form of separate regiments

    • limits on promotion

    • lower pay than white soldiers

    • higher mortality rate because they worked in the garrisons, where deadly diseases spread quickly

    • more likely to be killed upon capture by Confederate troops

Thesis Statement: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

48. Explain how and why "total war" was used against the Confederacy in the Civil War. Do you think that the Union's reasons for adopting this strategy were reasonable? Explain your opinion.

  • Grant and Sherman believed it was necessary

    • fight not only the Confederacy's armies and government but its civilians as well b

    • civilians produced the weapons, grew the food, and transported the goods on which the armies relied

    • the strength of the people's will kept the war going, and therefore breaking will could bring the war to an end

  • Sherman waged total war in his march through Georgia and South Carolina as his army pillaged and burned houses and destroyed livestock and crops

    • civilians do not play an aggressive role in war, as soldiers do, and that many of them, such as children, are completely innocent and defenseless

    • civilians should not be targeted in acts of war.

Thesis Statement: _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

49. Discuss some dramatic changes brought about by the Civil War—for the better or worse. Defend your opinions.

  • abolition of slavery

  • adoption of the Thirteenth Amendment

  • end of secession threats

  • dramatic increase in the federal government's power

  • devastation of the Southern economy

  • widening of the economic gap between the North and the South

  • advancements in military technology such as the rifle, mini_ ball, hand grenade, land mine, and ironclad ship

  • new military tactics including trench warfare and total war

  • abandonment of military tactics such as massed assaults on fortified positions

  • introduction of women into the paid labor force

  • advancements in the hygiene of army camps

Thesis Statement: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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