Human trafficking



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Fall 2015-2016

GEND 1007 Special Topics in Gender Equality and Social Justice
HUMAN TRAFFICKING
Wednesdays 12:30 – 3:30, Room R309

Instructor: Dr. Rosemary Nagy

Contact: rnagy@nipissingu.ca or (705) 474-3450 ext. 4156

Office hours: Tuesday 12 -2 or by appointment

Office: Room A335 (above small cafeteria)

www.nipissingu.ca/faculty/rnagy



Course Description: Human trafficking typically is seen as having three phases: (1) control of movement or physical transportation (2) the use of coercion or fraud and lack of consent, and (3) exploitation, typically through sexual exploitation or forced labour. While there may be global consensus that human trafficking is a terrible human rights crime that must be stopped, there is much controversy about how to do so. For example, how should we understand exploitation, particularly sexual exploitation? Is prostitution inherently exploitive? Are traffickers and pimps one and the same? Would the abolition of prostitution stop the problem of sex trafficking? Should we treat human trafficking primarily as a criminal problem or as a human rights problem? What are the weaknesses and advantages of each approach? Why does trafficking occur? Why do some “victims” not want to be “rescued”? Does anti-trafficking policy help to support anti-immigration policy, and vice versa?
In this course we address questions such as these in an effort to unpack the political rhetoric and media hype over trafficking, as well as legal and policy approaches. In so doing, we seek to untangle how gender, race, class, colonialism, and culture intersect in understandings and experiences of human trafficking, and to situate human trafficking in its historical and socioeconomic contexts. We examine human trafficking both inernationally and within Canada.
Required text: Coursepack available at Print Plus as well as online articles (access via Refshare or URL).
Learning Objectives: Upon completion of the core requirements of this course, students should expect to have:


  • a clear understanding of the key terms, concepts, and challenges related to human trafficking, including the debate between abolitionists and migrant sex work advocates

  • some familiarity with social justice issues related especially to gender, race, class, colonialism, and culture as they impact upon understandings and experiences of human trafficking

  • an increased capacity to critically reflect on key issues based on scholarly research rather than ‘opinion’

  • continued development of reading, writing and research skills



Evaluation:
Participation 10% Weekly attendance and informed discussion

Term Essay (5-6 pages) 20% Hardcopy due in class November 18.

Reading responses (3x10%) 30% Due via Blackboard by Wed noon for that week’s readings

Final exam 40% Regular exam period




Reading responses are due by noon (via Blackboard) on the day that we will discuss those readings. Reading responses will not be accepted after class discussion/lecture specific to those readings has occurred.
Late penalties apply for the term essay: If your term essay is submitted after the deadline, you will be penalized 10% for the first day, 1% for every following day, up until November 25, 2015. You may not submit your essay after this date. Extensions will be considered only in advance of the deadline and under truly exceptional circumstances.
Punctual and regular attendance is essential for the successful completion of a course. When absenteeism exceeds 20%, the student may be excluded from writing the final examination.


Accommodation

Students with a range of learning styles and needs are welcome in this course. In particular, if you have a disability / health consideration that may require accommodations, please contact the Student Accessibility Services Office as soon as possible. The Student Accessibility Services staff (located in B210 or ext 4362) are available by appointment to assess specific needs, provide referrals and arrange appropriate accommodations. The sooner you let us know your needs the quicker we can assist you in achieving your learning goals in this course. See http://www.nipissingu.ca/departments/student-development-and-services/accessibility-services/Pages/default.aspx


Laptops and cellphones

Students are permitted to use laptop computers only for taking notes from the lectures. Playing games, surfing the internet, checking e-mail, instant messaging, watching videos or listening to music are not permitted during class time. If you are disrupting other students or me with this kind of activity, you will be asked to turn off your laptop/cellphone or to leave. Studies show that students who are disconnected during lectures—and students who take notes by hand—learn and perform better (see http://www.newyorker.com/tech/elements/the-case-for-banning-laptops-in-the-classroom).


Academic Integrity

Plagiarism and academic dishonesty are serious offences. It is your responsibility to be familiar with Nipissing’s policies on academic dishonesty. Please make yourself familiar, here: http://www.nipissingu.ca/calendar/studentpolicies_academicdishonesty.asp

Any instances of students plagiarizing or cheating will be dealt with according to this policy.
Blackboard

We will be using blackboard in the class to post links and articles of interest, as well as lecture slides and any announcements. Please check Blackboard each week in advance of class. You will also hand in the reading responses via blackboard and be able to view your grades on blackboard.




1.

Sept. 9


Introduction: Global Overview

United Nations, Global Report on Trafficking in Persons (Vienna: United Nations Office on Global Crime, 2014). Read at least the Executive Summary at https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/glotip/GLOTIP_2014_full_report.pdf .





*First response piece due for one set of readings from weeks 2-4*

Due by noon the day of the class where we’ll discuss the readings


2.

Sept. 16


Unpacking the Trafficking Discourse

Jyoti Sanghera “Unpacking the Trafficking Discourse,” in Kamala Kempadoo, Jyoti Sanghera and Bandana Pattanaik, eds., Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered, 2nd ed. (Paradigm Publishers, 2012). [coursepack] 





3.

Sept. 23


Gender Analysis and Feminist Approaches

Lisa C. Ruchti, “Fear, Fraud, and Frank Complexity: The Influence of Gender on Human Trafficking” in Mary C. Burke, ed., Human Trafficking: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. (London: Routledge, 2013). [coursepack]


In-class film: Trading Women (Slotar and Feingold, 2002) 77 minutes [261271].


4.

Sept. 30


Legal Approaches: Criminal Law or Human Rights?

Andrea Bertone, “Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation,” in Human Rights: Politics and Practice, ed. Michael Goodhart (Oxford: Oxford UP, 2009), 201-217. ISBN: 978-0-19-954084-6. [coursepack]


Tim Riordan Raaflaub, Human Trafficking (Ottawa: Library of Parliament, 2006) at http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/lop/researchpublications/prb0425-e.htm .






*Second response piece due for one set of readings from weeks 5-8*

Due by noon the day of the class where we’ll discuss the readings


5.

Oct. 7


Prostitution and Trafficking: Debates over Consent and Exploitation

Monica O’Connor and Grainne Healy, The Links between Prostitution and Sex Trafficking: A Briefing Handbook (USA: Coalition Against the Trafficking of Women, 2006), pages 6-23 at http://www.catwinternational.org/Content/Images/Article/235/attachment.pdf,


In-class film: Enslaved and Exploited (Hope for the Sold, 2010). 46 minutes. https://vimeo.com/10668783
* [recommended not required]: Lobasz, Jennifer K. "Beyond Border Security: Feminist Approaches to Human Trafficking." Security Studies 18, no. 2 (2009): 319 - 44. [refshare]


6.

READING WEEK

7.

Oct. 21


Prostitution and Trafficking: Debates over Consent and Exploitation

Jeffrey, Leslie Ann. "Canada and migrant sex‐work: Challenging the ‘foreign’ in foreign policy." Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 12, no. 1 (2005): 33-48.


Maynard, Robyn. "Sex Work, Migration and Anti-Trafficking: Interviews with Nandita Sharma and Jessica Yee." Briarpatch, 2010 at http://briarpatchmagazine.com/articles/view/sex-work-migration-anti-trafficking
Guest speaker: Prof. Leslie Jeffrey, UNB [via Skype]
In-class videos: Timea Nagy and Naomi Sayers on Power and Politics (discussing Bill C-36, 7 July 2014) at http://www.cbc.ca/player/News/Politics/ID/2471627991/

and “Every ho I know says so” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FTdBXLCo1Qk




8.

Oct. 28


Bonded Labour

Kevin Bales, “Brazil: Life on the Edge,” ch. 4 in Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy, rev. ed. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2012), pages 121-148. [coursepack]


In-class film: Kevin Bales’ Ted Talk “How to Combat Modern Slavery”

http://www.ted.com/talks/kevin_bales_how_to_combat_modern_slavery?language=en





*Third response piece due for one set of readings from weeks 9-12*

Due by noon the day of the class where we’ll discuss the readings


9.

Nov. 4


Bonded Labour and the Trafficking of Children

Anne Kielland, “The Exploitation Equation: Distinguishing Child Trafficking from Other Types of Child Mobility in West Africa,” in in Mary C. Burke, ed., Human Trafficking: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. (London: Routledge, 2013). [coursepack]


In-class film: The Dark Side Of Chocolate (273093) 2010. 46 minutes

10.

Nov. 11


Trafficking in Canada

RCMP, “Human Trafficking in Canada: A Threat Assessment,” (2010), Executive Summary at: http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/pubs/ht-tp/htta-tpem-eng.htm


De Shalit, Ann, Robert Heynen, and der Meulen van. "Human Trafficking and Media Myths: Federal Funding, Communication Strategies, and Canadian Anti-Trafficking Programs." Canadian Journal of Communication 39, no. 3 (2014): 385-412. [refshare]
* [recommended, not required]: RCMP, “Domestic Human Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation in Canada,” (2013), Executive Summary at http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/ht-tp/publications/2013/proj-safekeeping-eng.htm.


11.

Nov. 18


**Term Essay DUE

in class

Trafficking in Canada

Sethi, Anupriya. "Domestic Sex Trafficking of Aboriginal Girls in Canada: Issues and Implications." First Peoples Child & Family Review 3, no. 3 (2007): 57-71 at http://journals.sfu.ca/fpcfr/index.php/FPCFR/article/view/50/88.


In-class film: Canada’s Lost Women (Al Jazeera, 2015) http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/peopleandpower/2015/06/canada-lost-women-150610131159600.html



12.

Nov. 25


The Politics of Rescue

Thrupkaew, Noy. “The Crusade Against Sex Trafficking.” (Cover Story)." Nation 289, no. 10 (10/05, 2009): 11-20. [refshare] This is Part One


Thrupkaew, Noy. "Beyond Rescue." Nation 289, no. 13 (10/26, 2009): 21-24. [refshare]. This is Part Two.
Free the Slaves, “Community Based Model For Fighting Slavery,” 2015 at https://www.freetheslaves.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Community-BasedModelforFightingSlaverybooklet-web.pdf, [you don’t need to read the appendices]
In-class film: Nefarious: Merchant of Souls (2012). 95 minutes [275190]


13.

Dec. 2


Conclusions and Review


Assignment Descriptions
Participation and attendance 10%

Your mark will be based on your attendance and participation in lectures. Regular attendance is essential. If you are missing class for a legitimate reason (i.e. doctor's appointment) you must convey this to me; otherwise you will be marked "zero" for that day. Late entries as well as early exits are disruptive, and often result in the missing of important information. Participation includes, but is not limited to, contributing one’s own insights or ideas to class. It also entails respectful listening and, ideally, a commitment to involving others in the learning process. You are expected to come to class prepared to discuss the day’s readings. Verbal participation in class should be relevant and connected to the readings for the week.


Reading Responses 3x10%=30%

Due: Noon on the day of class that we’ll be discussing the readings.

500-700 words each (roughly two pages double-spaced). Submit via blackboard
You must hand in three reading responses, one from weeks 2-4, one from weeks 5-8, and one from weeks 9-12. Response pieces are due by noon on the day of the class that we’ll be discussing the readings i.e. come to class having completed the assignment. Response pieces handed in after the lecture on the readings will not be accepted.
Reading responses should demonstrate that you have read and critically reflected on the readings for that week. Reading and writing "critically" does not mean the same thing as "criticizing," in everyday language (complaining or griping, fault-finding, nit-picking). Your "critique" can and should be positive and praise the text if possible, as well as pointing out problems, disagreements and shortcomings.
Please consider the following in your response:


  1. What is the main issue or problem that the author is addressing?

  2. What is the author’s central claim, argument, or point?

  3. What evidence does the author present to back up his/her argument?

  4. What are possible counter-arguments to the author’s claim?

  5. What is your overall reaction to the reading?

  6. Optional: how does what you’ve learned here relate to other readings or discussions in the course or to your own life experience?


Note: Please clearly indicate the week/texts to which you are responding.

If the week you have selected has more than one reading, you may focus on just one. However you may consider them collectively, particularly for identifying counter-arguments, hidden assumptions, or the corroboration of claims.


Your reading response will be evaluated based on the following:

  • Depth of engagement with the text: grasp of key issues and main argument

  • Argumentation: student author refers directly to the text using direct quotes or paraphrasing, with proper citation (Use Chicago Author-Date system), to justify response (particularly for #1, 2 and 3)

  • Critical reflection: response piece demonstrates an analytical approach to the text (do not summarize the text) that synthesizes and evaluates information

  • Writing style: response piece is clearly written with proper grammar and spelling.

Resource on response papers: https://twp.duke.edu/uploads/assets/response%20paper.pdf



Term Essay 20%

Due November 18 in class. 5-7 pages double-spaced plus Reference List. Please use the Chicago/Turabian Author-Date System. See http://www.lib.umd.edu/tl/guides/citing-chicago-ad.

Your essay must refer to at least three sources. Specific topics/questions will be provided prior to reading week.
Final Exam 40%

To be held during the official examination period, the final exam will cover all the materials – readings, screenings, films, lectures and discussions for the entire course.


Important notes for written assignments:

- Make sure your name is on your assignment

- Always keep a copy of your paper in print or computer file.

- All assignments must be double-spaced, in 12 point Times New Roman (not a fancy font please), with 1 inch margins and page numbers.

- Assignments will not be accepted over email unless you are sick on the day they are due. Your email must reach me by 12:30 pm on the day the assignment is due.

- Late papers will only be accepted with prior consent of instructor



Writing tips for written assignments

- Remember to provide a title, preferably one that highlights your thesis or central concerns.

- Avoid a lengthy, overly general introduction; state your intentions concisely and engagingly.

- Each paragraph is to be a unit of thought and should develop an idea.

- Provide transition between topics. Your essay should have continuity; it should “hang together.”

- Support or illustrate your assertions; be as specific and precise as possible.

- Quoted materials (see “plagiarism” below) belong in quotation marks and a page number should be supplied. See syllabus for complete references for readings in the course reader. Use a style guide for references and be consistent. Ideas or passages that are paraphrased (written in your own words) also need to be referenced.

- Avoid over-use of quoted materials. Passages that are quoted need to be contextualized and require comments that directly forward your own argument.

- You may use the word “I” in your work for this class.

- Avoid errors of spelling, grammar and punctuation.

- Remember to proofread your assignments. You can lose as much as a full letter grade–possibly even more–by forgetting to proofread and make final revisions. Ideally, a final draft would be looked over by a writing lab.
Statement of what grades mean
“80-100% indicates EXCEPTIONAL PERFORMANCE: comprehensive in-depth knowledge of the principles and materials treated in the course, fluency in communicating that knowledge and independence in applying material and principles.

70-79% indicates GOOD PERFORMANCE: thorough understanding of the breadth of materials and principles treated in the course and ability to apply and communicate that understanding effectively.



60-69% indicates SATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE: basic understanding of the breadth of principles and material treated in the course and an ability to apply and communicate that understanding competently.

50-59% indicates MINIMALLY COMPETENT PERFORMANCE: adequate understanding of most principles and materials treated in the course, but with significant weakness in some areas and in the ability to apply and communicate that understanding.

0- 49% indicates FAILURE: inadequate or fragmentary knowledge of the principles and materials treated in the course or a failure to complete the work required in the course”

(Faculty handbook, “Final Grades:” http://www.nipissingu.ca/academics/faculties/arts-science/Pages/Faculty-Handbook.aspx#assessmentofgrades)
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