Human Cloning: Right or Wrong?

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Human Cloning

(Excerpts from “Human Cloning: Right or Wrong?” by Eryl Davies)

The Raelian sect was founded in France in 1973 by a journalist, Claude Vorilhon (Rael.) Active in eight-four countries, the sect claims over 60,000 members.

The Raelian sect formed a cloning company called: Clonaid.

For a heterosexual couple, perhaps it is the death of their child or a desire to take precautionary measures in case their child dies young or unexpectedly. The precaution would be to preserve samples of cells belonging to a child still living so that they could be used for organ repair or cloning in the future, if necessary. Or it may be couples struggling with fertility problems and longing for their own child.
A second reason for forming this company must be financial. When Clonaid began, it charged $50,000 for sampling and storing human cells, in a service known as Insuraclone.
Clonaid also intends to clone pets of wealthy persons who want their dead pets brought back to life. The same service will be offered to racehorse owners.
Their message is unmistakable. The only prospect of living after death is by means of cloning.
For Rael, cloning will enable mankind to reach eternal life. The next step will be to directly clone an adult person without having to go through the growth process and to transfer memory and personality in this person. Then, we wake up after death in a brand new body just like after a good night’s sleep!
The distinction between reproductive and therapeutic cloning. In therapeutic cloning, the cloning of human embryos is to produce stem cells to assist in treating degenerative diseases like Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Muscular Dystrophy. By substituting new stem cells for those cells that have been lost, it is hoped that people suffering from these degenerative, and currently incurable, conditions can be helped significantly, if not healed.
We are unique, with each person possessing the same dignity and worth. Human life begins at conception (Jeremiah 1:4-5; Psalm 51:5; 139:13-16).
What is cloning? A process that makes exact replicas of genetic material. A number of stages can be identified with regard to the process of human reproductive cloning and here is an example of one such process.
At stage 1, the aim is to obtain 400 eggs which are female cells. These eggs are obtained from up to forty female donors. Doctors take from each donor up to fifteen eggs. Stage 2 involves taking cells from the person who is going to be cloned. In stage 3, the cell nucleus containing the DNA, that is, the genetic material found in all living organisms, is removed from each egg by means of a tiny needle.
Stage 4 involves placing the DNA-free eggs in contact with the cells of the person being cloned. An electric charge is then used to create a shock in order to fuse together both sets of cells. Usually, some eggs divide to form embryos – a term used to describe the human offspring in its earliest form in the first eight weeks from conception or fusing.
Over a short period of time, stage 5 involves several eggs being implanted in up to fifty surrogate mothers, from which nine or ten pregnancies can result. The pregnancies may end because of miscarriage or abortion when serious, often extensive, defects are discovered.
This process of human reproductive cloning is termed asexual reproduction because all the genes of the clone are derived from a body cell of just one person. By contrast, in normal sexual reproduction a child benefits from receiving an equal number of genes from each of its parents. And in this normal process, there is no need of artificial assistance to fuse the male and female cells together.
In conception or fertilization, the male sperm (cell) and the female egg blend together. A technical name for what is there, after fusion, is a zygote; it is a new cell, genetically complete, and includes all that is required to form us as unique individuals. “The only additional requirement you needed then, and indeed have done ever since then, has been nutrition.”
Not only are human embryos exploited but many of them are deliberately destroyed in the quest for both reproductive and therapeutic human cloning. Cloning humans can lead to high fetal loss.
Even in the case of the therapeutic cloning, it is necessary for scientists to create the embryo initially. Scientists then destroy the embryo once the nucleus or needed cells are removed.
The purpose in therapeutic cloning is an admirable one, possibly replacing a kidney or skin tissue in a sick patient.
Christians, with others, welcome the prospect of overcoming degenerative diseases like those mentioned above, but must it be at the cost of killing the embryo once the needed cells have been removed?
Christian medical doctors prefer an alternative way and point to the recently developed research with regard to adult stem cells.
Peter Saunders reports that these have ‘already been used successfully in humans in the treatment of bowel, skin and heart disease and in other mammals for a much broader range of illnesses.’
What this means is that therapeutic treatment can be given to patients without using and destroying human embryos. That is excellent news. For Saunders, the evidence is “good” and “growing all the time, that adult human cells may be a simpler alternative to using embryonic stem cells without the practical and ethical problems inherent in the cloning of human embryos.”
It is time to underline our three Bible principles:
1. Human life begins at conception. If you question this biblical principle then consider the statement in the Old Testament about the prophet Jeremiah: “Before I formed you in the womb I knew you; before you were born I sanctified [lit: “set you apart”] you; and I ordained you as a prophet…’ (Jeremiah 1:5). One cannot escape the conclusion that the embryo in the womb is a person; it is known to God even before conception and God as Creator is the one who “formed” the child. And for that child, as for Jeremiah, God has a purpose. By contrast, cloning procedures assume that embryos can be destroyed once they have served their usefulness. A growing number of Christians are persuaded that the destruction of embryos in this way also violates God’s command to us not to kill (Exodus 20:13).
2. Humans, even in the womb, are made in the image of God; consequently, each human has worth and dignity.
Cloning ‘constitutes unethical experimentation on a non-consenting human subject.’ People can be cloned merely to obtain ‘spare parts’, so embryos are treated as a means to an end, a commodity rather than an individual. Commercialization and exploitation will be possible especially in collecting embryos which are not needed but kept in freezer storage.
The ethics of human cloning ‘tend to be totally utilitarian and utterly self-serving.’
God institute marriage for a man and woman; in that loving, intimate relationship, God intends that children should be conceived and born. Children are a heritage of the Lord (Psalm 127:3) and it is the Lord who opens the womb. They are the fruit of a loving, marriage relationship (Ephesians 6:1-4; Colossians 3:20-21). It is now possible through cloning to bring a new human into the world by using the genetic material of one person rather than two as God intended in marriage. In cloning procedures, there is no essential difference between cell fusion methods mentioned earlier in the chapter and CNR, which is cell nuclear replacement. Although using different methods, both involve the introduction of a cell nucleus into a de-nucleated cell. Male sperm is not required in either procedure.
‘God ordained that his image in human beings (Genesis 1:27) was to be passed on in the context of a loving committed marriage relationship, through sexual union (Genesis 2:24) and that children should be reared, protected, disciplined and educated within the context of a stable family relationship. We disregard his wisdom at our peril.
Rael teaches that about 25,000 years ago, extra-terrestrial beings called Elohim created all the varied forms of life which exist.
Cloning, for Rael, is the only path to immortality because humans have no souls.
‘It is appointed for men to die once,’ God’s Word declares, ‘but after this the judgment’ (Hebrews 9:27).

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