“How successful were the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations?” The Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations of October – December 1921 were somewhat successful in the immediate term and, although controversial and divisive, were quite successful in the longer term. When the British Government offered a truce and negotiations in mid-1921, DeValera set about attempting to achieve agreement with the British Prime Minister, Lloyd George, on the key issues of sovereignty and partition. DeValera, recognising that absolute independence would not be agreeable to the British, offered a complex alternative – ‘External Association’. On the issue of partition, no agreement was achievable at this stage, as the Government of Ireland Act (1920) had assured the place of N. Ireland within the United Kingdom in British & Unionist eyes. With this in mind, DeValera made his most controversial decision; not to lead or even attend the formal negotiations in London between October & December 1921. Whether or not he took this decision based on his own interpretation of protecting the Office of the President of the Dáil from disagreeable compromises, his absence certainly affected not only the successful outcome of the negotiations, but also created the serious opposition within Sinn Féin to the eventual Treaty signed on 6th December 1921.