US History Name: _________________ Do Now: [Adapted from U.S History and Government]
Yes, the thirteen colonies [New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia] were British colonies but the British had many problems during the 17th century. Some of Britain’s problems included the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and wars with Holland, France, and Spain. Due to these problems, the British allowed the colonies a great amount of self-government and economic freedom. Indeed, it is often stated that the British used a policy of “Salutary Neglect” during this period. In fact, this led to Britain being largely absent during this period in colonial America. As such, the colonies in North America were left for the most part to govern themselves. Thus, when after the French and Indian War in 1763, the British needed more revenue (income) and started to treat the colonies like colonies – the colonists were furious.
List the thirteen colonies. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe Britain during the 17th century. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Describe Britain’s North American colonies during the 17th century. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
In your own words, explain “Salutary Neglect.” ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Why were the colonists furious after the French and Indian War in 1763? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
So, what does being like a colony look like?
“During the 17th and 18th centuries, England, as did most European countries, believed that power depended upon monetary wealth and that the colonies were a source of wealth in that they would:
Provide raw materials for the mother country
Import manufactured goods of higher values from England
Not compete with the mother country in economic activities
After 1763, Britain decided to tighten its control over both the political and economic affairs of the colonies. To carry this out, Britain ended the policy of salutary neglect and began to enforce the mercantilist system, a policy that aroused strong colonial opposition.”
Explain three ways colonies were a source of wealth according to mercantilist theory. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What did Britain end after 1763? Why? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Now, add to these historical facts, the fact that the 18th century (the 1700s) was the Age of Reason or the Age of the European Enlightenment. Look at the chart below. Do you remember these Enlightenment thinkers?
Baron de Montesquieu
Believed governments obtain their authority from the consent of the people they govern
a doctrine in political theory that government is created by and subject to the will of the people
Freedom of Speech
“During the European Enlightenment, thinkers were setting forth the idea that governments should be structured on a foundation of law and that a contract existed between the government and the governed. It was not too great a step from that idea to the belief that revolution against those who abused the existing contract was justified. The makers of the American revolution and later the founders of the American constitutional system of government were guided in their actions and beliefs by the theory of natural rights and the idea of representative government, as advocated by the Enlightenment thinkers.” Now, write a reflective paragraph on how many forces came together to create a desire for a new type of government; a new society.
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Two Flashcards that May be Helpful before Multiple-Choice Practice:
The Mayflower Compact and the House of Burgesses
The Mayflower Compactwas a document signed by Pilgrims crossing the Atlantic in 1620.
The Mayflower Compact established a colonial government deriving power from the consent of the governed.
Virginia established its own House of Burgesses, in which elected representatives helped govern the colony.
The British and the French became involved in the French and Indian War (1754-1763).
The British eventually defeated the French and gained control of Canada.
(2) the decline of slavery in the northern colonies
(3) a decrease in French and Spanish influence in North America
(4) the development of independent colonial trade practices
Analyze the following images:
Pre-Reading for Primary Source [ushistory.org:
“Although many differences separated Spain and France from England, perhaps the factor that contributed most to distinct paths of colonization was the form of their government.
Spain and France had absolute monarchies, but Britain had a limited monarchy. In New France and New Spain, all authority flowed from the Crown to the settlers, with no input from below. The English kings who ruled the 13 original colonies reserved the right to decide the fate of their colonies as well, but not alone. The colonists drew upon their claims to traditional English rights and insisted on raising their own representative assemblies. Such was the case with the Virginia House of Burgesses, the first popularly elected legislature in the New World.”
How did Britain’s government differ from governments in Spain and France? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
How was Britain’s government similar to governments in Spain and France? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What was the Virginia House of Burgesses? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Primary Source: “But forasmuch as men’s affaires doe litle prosper where God's service is neglected, all the Burgesses tooke their places in the Quire till a prayer was said by Mr. Bucke, the Minister, that it would please God to guide and sanctifie all our proceedings to his own glory and the good of this Plantation ... The Speaker ... delivered in briefe to the whole assembly the occasions of their meeting. Which done he read unto them the commission for establishing the Counsell of Estate and the general Assembly, wherein their duties were described to the life ... And forasmuch as our intente is to establish one equall and uniforme kinde of government over all Virginia &c.” ~ John Pory, “A Reporte of the Manner of Proceeding in the General Assembly Convented at James City” (July 30, 1619) Identify three main points made in the primary source.