Waterloo: where Napoleon suffered his final defeat
Elba: island where Napoleon was imprisoned & escaped after the Battle of Waterloo
Objectives: Student will be able to describe how Haiti, Brazil, & South America achieved independence by researching the influences that caused the struggle for independence.
Students will also be able to explain the role that Native Americans and mestizos played in achieving their countries’ independence and describe the negative effects of independence.
1.Why did slaves in the French colony of Saint-Domingue revolt?
Whites denied slave access to education, used brutal methods to terrorize and dehumanize them, trying to keep them powerless; slaves outnumbered their masters.
2. What events led up to General Dessalines’s declaration of independence for Haiti?
An African priest named Boukman inspired a slave revolution. Toussaint L’Ouverture (Black Napoleon) became the leader of the revolution, but the French imprisoned him. Then General Dessalines took over the rebellion.
3. How did events in Europe lead to revolution in the Spanish colonies?
Motivated by Enlightenment ideals, creoles finally revolted against Spanish colonial rule when Napoleon made his brother, who was not Spanish, king of Spain.
4. What tactics did José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar use to defeat Spanish forces in South America?
Bolívar used surprise tactics to defeat the Spanish in Bogotá. San Martín, with the help of Bernardo O’Higgins, drove the Spanish out of Chile. The two leaders then met in Ecuador and San Martín left his army for Bolívar to command; this unified revolutionary force, under Bolívar, won independence for Peru.
5. What is the significance of the grito de Dolores?
With the cry of Dolores, Padre Miguel Hidalgo called upon peasants to rebel against Spanish rule.
6. What role did Indians, mestizos, & Creoles play in Mexico’s independence?
Indians and mestizos began the revolution; later, creoles, fearing the loss of privileges under a new liberal regime in Spain, supported independence.
World History 8.1 Latin American Peoples Win Independence
BCR 1 At the top of Spanish colonial society were the peninsulares, who were Spanish-born; then came the creoles, Spaniards born in Latin America. Below them were people of mixed ancestry—first the mestizos (persons of mixed European and Indian ancestry) and then the mulattos (persons of mixed European and African ancestry). The Africans came next, and at the bottom stood the Indians.
BCR 2. Of those who had something to gain from independence, this group was the best educated and most familiar with Enlightenment ideas. Many had military training, compliments of Spain. Even though members of this group led privileged lives in comparison to others, they had reason for complaint and felt that the injustice they suffered was severe. Being well-educated, members of this group probably thought they were capable of running their country without help from Spain.
1. He was a better military leader. His armies were successful, but he was unable to achieve his political goals of uniting many nations.
2. He believed that Europe’s problem was that there were too many countries and they constantly fought each other. He hoped to form a large country linked to neighboring countries with a system of alliances.
3. We may suggest that he was a partial success. He did much to achieve independence from Spain but was unable to achieve his political goals.
Summary: In today’s lesson, we describe how Haiti, Brazil, & South America achieved independence and explain the role that Native Americans and mestizos played in achieving their countries’ freedom.
Homework: Peninsulares: were the Spaniards born in Latin America.
Tousaint L’Overture-led a successful slave revolt on the island of Haiti; known as the Black Napoleon.
A. Terms and NamesWrite the letter of the term or name that best matches the description. A term or name may be used more than once or not at all.
a. creoles e. mulattos i. peninsulares
b. Simón Bolívar f. Miguel Hidalgo j. Toussaint L’Ouverture
c. mestizos g. Bernardo O’Higgins k. José de San Martín
d. José María Morelos h. Saint-Domingue l. Santo Domingo
______ 1. He was a priest who issued the Grito de Dolores, a call for a peasant rebellion in Mexico.
______ 2. This was the name of the Spanish two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola.
______ 3. He led a slave revolt that ended slavery on the island of Hispaniola.
______ 4. This term was used in Latin America to describe people of mixed European and Indian ancestry.
______ 5. This term was used in Latin America to describe Latin Americans born in Spain.
______ 6. He was known as Libertador.
______ 7. After winning independence for Argentina and Chile, he gave up command of his army.
______ 8. This term was used in Latin America to describe people of mixed European and African ancestry.
______ 9. He was a priest who was also a skillful military leader.
______10. He led his forces against the Spanish army in the Battle of Ayacucho, the last major battle in the Spanish colonies’ war for independence.
______11. This term was used in Latin America to describe Spaniards born in Latin America.
______12. This term names the people at the top of Spanish American society.
BCR 1. explain the divisions within Latin American colonial society. In your writing, use the following terms: peninsulares, Creoles, & mulattos
BCR2 . Critical Thinking answer the following question. Why do you think that Latin-American-born Spaniards, a group that suffered far less oppression than other groups, would be the group to lead the revolution against Spain?
HISTORYMAKERS Simón Bolívar The Liberator
“The bonds that united us to Spain have been severed.”—Bolívar, The Letter from Jamaica (1814)
Simón Bolívar led his people’s fight for independence from Spain. He envisioned the formation of a single country extending from present-day Venezuela to modern Bolivia. However, his plans clashed with those of his followers, and the grand nation he dreamed of creating fell apart. Bolívar was born in 1783 to a wealthy family from the colony of Venezuela. His education included several years of study in Europe. While there, he married, but soon after the couple reached South America his wife died of yellow fever.
Bolívar then returned to Europe and met with several important thinkers and politicians. One of them told Bolívar that the Spanish-American colonies had vast resources that could make them powerful— if only they could become free of Spanish control. Bolívar returned to South America and joined the movement for independence. In 1810, a group of rebels in Venezuela removed the Spanish governor from office and took control. The next year Venezuela declared itself indepenent.
By 1813, Bolívar commanded the army. In 1814, however, the Spanish fought back and defeat-ed his troops, forcing him to flee the country. During Bolívar’s exile, he called for all Spanish colonies to rise against European rule to “avenge three centuries of shame.” In 1814, he wrote a famous call to arms, The Letter from Jamaica, which outlined a plan to create republics reaching from Mexico to Argentina and Chile. Unable to win British or American support, he turned to Haiti.
With money and guns from this newly independent republic, he returned to Venezuela to face the largest army Spain had ever sent across the Atlantic. From 1815 to 1817, neither side won any decisive battles. However, Bolívar began to build the foundation of victory. He declared the end of slavery to be one of his goals, thus winning wider sup-port. He made alliances with two groups of guerrilla soldiers, who harassed the Spanish army. He also hired veteran European troops. Then in 1819, he devised a daring plan to cross the Andes Mountains and surprise the Spanish. His army of 2,000 first had to cross the hot jungles of the Orinoco River and then the freezing mountain passes. Many died, but Bolívar’s army was strong enough to defeat the Spanish in four different battles.
Bolívar returned to the city of Angostura, Venezuela, and joined a congress working on forming the new government. With his urging, members voted to create the republic of Gran Colombia, which would include modern Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. “The lessons of experience should not be lost on us,” he said. Europe had too many countries that constantly fought each other. “A single government,” he argued, “may use its great resources [to] lift us to the summit of power and prosperity.” Bolívar was named president and military dictator of the new republic. Bolívar won independence for Venezuela in 1821 and Ecuador in 1822. He freed Peru from Spain in 1824 and Upper Peru in 1825, which renamed itself Bolivia. He was president of Gran Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia.
Bolívar hoped that these nations would unite and thus become stronger. Others did not share this vision. Even Bolívar’s closest allies in the fight for independence believed that there should be several countries, not one large one. By 1826, civil war had broken out. Two years later, Bolívar reacted to the crisis by declaring himself military dictator. Opponents attacked his palace and tried to assassinate him. The Liberator was now seen as an enemy of the state. Venezuela withdrew from Gran Colombia, and Ecuador followed. Finally, with his body wracked by tuberculosis and his heart sick over the conflict, Bolívar retired in 1830. He died later that year.
1. Perceiving Relationships Was Bolívar a better military or political leader? Explain.
2. Organizing Facts and Details What lesson did Bolívar draw from European history? What did he suggest doing in South America to prevent this problem?
3. Making Judgments Would you say that Bolívar was a success or a failure? Explain.